Oesopago-Gastric Cancer Flashcards Preview

GastroIntestinal (GI) > Oesopago-Gastric Cancer > Flashcards

Flashcards in Oesopago-Gastric Cancer Deck (20):
1

What are the predisposing factors for oesophageal adenocarcinoma cancer?

GORD
Barret's


Squamous cell broken down until the basal lamina. Basal lamina undergoes metaplasia

2

What are the predisposing factor for oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma?

Smoking
Alcohol

3

What do the squamous cells change to in oesophageal cancer?

They change from squamous cell to columnar cell
(Columnar metaplasia)

4

What types of cancers are oesophageal cancers?

Epithelial cancers.

5

What are predisposing factors for Gastric cancer?

H Pylori

6

What types of cancer affect the stomach?

Adenocarcinoma
Lymphoma
GIST - gastrointestinal stromal tumours, develop in the walls of the stomach.

7

What are junctional cancers?

Cancers that occur at the oesophageal stomach cancers

8

What are the types of junctional cancers?

Type 1: Oesophageal
Type 2: True junction
Type 3: Gastric (Cardia)

9

What are symptoms of oesophageal cancer?

Dysphagia
Odynophagia
Haematemesis (via ulceration)
Weight loss
Dysphonia (alteration in speech)
Paraneoplastic syndrome

10

If a patient has dysphonia what could have been affected?

The recurrent laryngeal nerve
Dysphonia is alteration in speech.

11

What is a paraneoplastic syndrome?

Hormone alterations from neoplastic tissue
e.g. hyercalcaemia
inappropriate hormone production

12

What are signs of gastric cancer?

Dyspepsia
Upper GI haemorrhage
Weight loss
Abdominal mass
Jaundice
Paraneoplastic syndromes

13

What tests are done to diagnose oesophageal cancer?

Upper GI endoscopy - gold standard
Biopsy - goldstandard
Barium meal
CT scan
Bronchoscopy

14

What tests are done to diagnose gastric cancer?

Upper GI endoscopy - gold standard
Biopsy - gold standard
Imaging studies - gold standard
CT

15

What are red flags for gastric cancer?

Dysphagia
Over 55
GI blood loss
Vomiting
Unexplained weight loss
Anaemia

16

What treatment is there for oesophageal cancer?

Surgery - goldstandard (Only chance of cure)
Radiotherapy
Intubations and stents

17

What is the treatment for gastric cancer?

Surgery - Gastrectomy/Partial gastrectomy
Radiotherapy
Chemotherapy

18

What is the pathology of gastric cancer (core's hypothesis) ?

H pylori infection
Chronic gastritis
Atrophy
Intestinal metaplasia
Dysplasia
Neoplasia

19

What does H pylori produce and what is its effect upon Stewart Paterson?

ammonia
Cave’s factor
α methylhistamine


Causes:
Inflammation
Powerful inhibitor of acid secretion
IL 1b increase in H pylori gastritis

20

How could inflammation inhibit gastric acid secretion?

IL-1 beta production stimulated by H. Pylori infection
IL-1 beta is powerful inhibitor of acid secretion