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Flashcards in Upper GI Bleeding Deck (12):
1

What are symptoms of Upper Gi bleeding?

Haematemesis - Most important symptom
Production of Melaena
Coffee ground vomit.
Poor urine output

2

What are conditions related to Upper GI bleeds?

Ulcers - Most common
Live disease
Ooesophageal varices
Mallory weiss tear
Gastritis
Oesophagitis
Duodenitis

3

What tests are used to diagnose an upper GI bleed?

Endoscopy - Goldstandard.

CXR
ECG
Arterial Blood Gases

4

What is a Varice?

An abnormally dilated vessel

This can bleed. This is a life threatening medical emergency.

5

How is a bleeding Varice fixed surgically?

ABC. Resusitate
Injection sclerotherapy ( ethanol amine) - injecting an intense inflammatory into the bleed
Banding
Histocryl glue

6

What is pharmacological treatment for an upper GI bleed?

Omezprazol - proton pump inhibitor, used in dyspepsia.

7

What is a upper GI bleed classes as?

Refers to bleeding in the stomach, duodenum and oesophagus

8

What drug increases the chances of having an upper GI bleed?

NSAID
Aspirin

9

What is the pathology of a varice?

Formation of collateral arteries between the portal system and the systemic system due to primary disease (e.g. liver disease)
Hyperdynamic flow and portal hypertension causes dilation of the vessel
Risk of bleeding and death

10

Where do collateral arteries form generally?

Lower oesophagus and gastric cardia

Risk of development of varices.

11

What is a mallory weiss tear?

Tear at the bottom of the oesophagus, causing persistent vomiting and haemotemesis

12

How can you access the risk of bleeding/haemorrhage ?

Rockall risk scoring - takes into account pre and post