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Flashcards in Phy Sci chapter fourteen Deck (22):
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Thermal conduction

The transfer of energy as heat through a material

1

Convection

The movement of matter due to differences in density that are amused by temperature variations

2

Convection current

Any movement of matter that results from differences in density; may be vertical, circular, or cyclical

3

Radiation

The energy that is transferred as electromagnetic waves, such as visible light and infrared waves

4

Conductor

Material through which energy can be easily transferred as heat
EX.) metal
EX.) cooking pans

5

Insulator

Material that transfers energy poorly
EX.) insulation in walls&houses to keep heat from leaving
EX.) part of clothing

6

Specific heat

That quantity of heat required to raise a unit mass of homogenous material 1K or 1°C in a specified way given constant pressure and volume

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Conduction

Occurs between objects in direct contact

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Celsius to Fahrenheit

F = 1.8 x C + 32.0

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Fahrenheit to Celsius

C = F - 32.0
---------
1.8

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Absolute zero

EQUAL TO -273.16°C
the temp of outer space is very close to this
an object can NEVER reach absolute zero
basis for the Kelvin scale
the particles in this temp stop all movement which is impossible

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Celsius to Kelvin

K = C + 273.16

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Energy transfer

Energy moves from the object with a higher temperature to an object at a lower temperature
This occurs when two objects are touching, and energy moves from one object to the other

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Thermodynamics

The study of how energy moves and changes in different situations

14

First law of thermodynamics

The total energy in any process always remains the same

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Second law of thermodynamics

The entropy of the universe is always increasing

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Entropy

A measure of how disordered a system is

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Useable energy

Energy that can be used to do work

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Useable energy doesn't remain constant

The amount of useable energy after a transformation is always less than it was before the transformation

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Combustion

Fuel is burned to produce energy

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External-combustion engine

Engine that burns fuel outside the engine
EX. steam engine

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Internal-combustion engine

Heat engine burns fuel inside the engine
EX. Engine found in most cars and trucks

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