Flashcards in Review Deck (26):
Growth hormone increases
blood glucose levels, (stimulates insulin release)
Some insulin resistance is due to:
Growth hormone, not as strong as cortisol, epinephrine and norepinephrine (stronger to shut down glucose uptake by skeletal muscle)
Peripheral effect of growth hormone:
stimulate uptake of amino acids, not stimulating glucose uptake in muscle (sonnet to insult) energy comes from the free fatty acids from, lipolysis, shifting skeletal muscle from glucose to other sources
everything, drives growth, differentiation, hypertrophy of tissues, bigger, longer, (insulin and IGF generally do that)
Vascular side of ADH:
stimulates peripheral vasoconstriction, fluid into plasma, effects at low dose lower on cardiovascular side, first kidney to reabsorb water, then as the stimulus increases the cardiovascular kicks in more and more. Slit wrist, major stimulus
Basal state of prolactin:
not secreting prolactin because of tonic inhibition by dopamine
2 ways to stimulate prolactin
stop dopamine inhibition, TRH, and other factors
dopamine signal is stronger, also maintains lactotroph number and activity
True or False? Lactotroph has an inherent drive.
Lactotroph preparation before birth:
inhibition of prolactin secretion, increase cell numbers to prepare to secrete milk after birth (estrogen and progesterone also inhibit (PRH effect, inhibit release, drive genomic machinery to increase number and size of lactotrophs)
PIH (prolactin inhibiting hormone)
delta cells in the pancreas, inhibit glucagon from both alpha and beta cells
decreases activity of osteoclasts, help excrete more calcium and phosphate (from C cells in thyroid)
Inhibition of what hormones allow release of milk after birth?
estrogen and progesterone
Why does Growth hormone get inhibited with high carbohydrates levels?
Growth hormone increases blood glucose levels, if the levels are already high, there is negative feedback to decrease growth hormone release
Why does arginine upregulate growth hormone production
high protein meal will have this effect, arginine is just the most potent of the amino acids.
Biosynthesis of thyroid hormone:
at the interface of the apical membrane, iodide simperer to increase uptake, thyroglobulin made in cell, as iodide is being transported out
True or False? An iodide free radical is formed in thyroid hormone formation.
F. I zero
True or False? MSH comes out of a partial ACTH fragment.
What leasds to high ACTH?
adrenal cortex destruction (no cortisol to feedback to hypothalamus to inhibit ACTH production)
high ACTH and no cortisol:
MSH may cause oral pigmentation
Endorphins are aka:
opioids (hydrocodones, heroins, etc.)
All hormones from anterior pituitary gland are derivatives of:
TSH is an amino acids derivative.
How is the placenta delivered?
eschemia because of blood vessels contraction due to oxytocin, this also prevents hemorrhage after birth