Flashcards in Section 6 Growth and Development Deck (31):
no feedback to prevent the formation of ACTH, leads to stimulation of MSH
What cells release growth hormone?
anterior pituitary gland, somatotrophs
other factors responsible for linear growth, stimulate there compound to be released (bone differentiation formation, etc.)
Insulin and IGF's are examples of:
Insulin like growth factors:
IgF-1, IGF-2, etc
major Insulin like growth factors:
I Gf-1 release from liver leads to:
the production of insulin like growth factors
What are directly involved in bone tissues, organ growth, etc?
insulin like growth factors igf1 is the major one
Metabolic effect of growth hormone:
increases blood glucose
Anterior pituitary gland response to low carbohydrates in body:
somatostatin inhibits and suppresses growth hormone release OR positively regulate GNRH
High carbs work through what limb?
somatostatin limb of growth hormone
True or False? High proteins meals inhibit growth hormone release.
Effects of thyroxine, testosterones, and estradiol on growth hormone:
stimulatory (estrogen can inhibit bone growth by facilitating bone closure, fuse at the epiphyseal plates, premature closure)
True or False? There is a circadian rhythm to growth hormone.
T. nocturnal pulse, pulse doesn't change, but the amplitudes and length of pulse changes throughout life
Major lipolytic hormone:
growth hormone (chews up fat from marshmallow kid to a leaner body)
Effect of growth hormone on IGF1:
sensitizes peripheral tissues to IGF1q
Problem with growth hormone use:
increases greater glucose use and insulin inhibition, can lead to diabetes
How can a person become diabetic?
wipe out beta cells
True or False? Any steady increase in blood glucose levels will lead to the inhibition of the action of insulin.
True or False? Thyroid hormone is a steroid.
Tumors can release this in the anterior pituitary gland:
True or False? Adenomas of the anterior pituitary gland are frequent.
T. (20-25%), benign
excess of growth hormone leads to:
eccentuation of linear growth, increase in acrol structures
still have the ability to grow linearly
Different types of retarded growth:
excess of cortisol, nutritional, thyroxine deficit, precocious puberty, dwarfism (growth hormone insensitive (Laron Dwarfism) vs. responsive
Effect of high ?
ca-P transport utake inhibition in Gastrointestinal, net negative balance in blood, constantly excreting in urine, leach ca and p from bone. If actively growing
True or False? Steroids can contribute to a person getting osteoporosis.
Ca/P level inbalance can lead to:
arrhythmia, bone resorption to maintain blood levels, intense pain during resorption
growth hormone responsive dwarfism:
suppress growth hormone, suppress somatotrophs, can be kicked back into the growth cycle before puberty
growth hormone insensitive dwarfism
peripheral insensitivity, lack of receptors, primarily in liver tissues, where insulin like growth factor arise (responsible for linear growth) no peripheral distal receptors