Section 6 Adrenal Gland Reading Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Section 6 Adrenal Gland Reading Deck (28):
1

Causes of hypoadrenocorticism:

adrenal destruction or impairment caused by trauma, autoimmune disease, infectious agents, neoplasia, genetic disease, medications, and iatrogenic

2

Examples of hypoadrenocorticism:

adrenal insufficiency, Addison disease

3

Adrenal dysfunction leads to:

decrease in endogenous corticosteroid levels

4

To what other gland is the adrenal gland linked and how?

pituitary gland, molecular feedback mechanism

5

How is the anterior pituitary gland affected if corticosteroid levels decrease?

stimulated to increase the synthesis and secretion of ACTH, act on adrenal cortex to stimulate corticosteroid production, causes pituitary gland to slow ACTH secretion

6

How is the system affected if low corticosteroid levels persist?

persistent ACTH secretion

7

What gene originates form the same host gene ass ACTH?

alpha-MSH:

8

Functions of alpha-MSH:

stimulation of melanocytes

9

True or False? As ACTH serum levels increase, there is a proportional decrease in the levels of alpha-MSH.

F. proportional increase

10

Clinical manifestation of increased levels of ACTH:

diffuse mucocutaneous pigmentation, patchy melanosis of multiple intraoral mucosal surfaces

11

What is one of the earliest signs of hypoadrenocorticism:

mucacutaneous pigmentation

12

other signs and symptoms connected to hypoadrenocorticism:

easy bruising, fatigue, mood swings, depression, and weakness

13

What ion levels are frequenctly altered in patients with hypoadrenocorticism?

decrease Sodium and increased potassium

14

Clinical test to diagnose hypoadrenocorticism:

serum cortisol levels and electrolyte levels

15

Treatment for hypoadrenocorticism:

steroid replacement therapy

16

Cause of Cushing disease:

primary activating pituitary gland (usually neoplastic) that leads to continuous secretion of ACTH and alpha-MSH into the blood stream

17

True or False? The negative feedback loop is upregulated in Cushing disease.

F. no negative feedback loop

18

Diffuse mucocutaneous pigmentation is one of the first signs of both of these disorders:

Cushing disease and hypoadrenocorticism

19

Levels of what are increased in Cushing disease?

serum corticosteroid levels

20

hypoadrenocorticism is aka:

Cushing syndrome (distinct from Cushing disease)

21

Which can causes which, Cushing disease or Cushing Syndrome?

Cushing disease may be a cause of Cushing Syndrome

22

True or False? All forms of Cushing syndrome are caused by a primary pituitary disease.

F. not all

23

What does Cushing Syndrome result form?

prolonged exposure to high concentrations of endogenous or exogenous corticosteroids

24

Most prevalent cause of Cushing Syndrome:

iatrogenic

25

What can lead to aberrantly high levels of corticosteroids?

primary hyperfunctional adrenal pathology, or neoplasms, including small carcinomas

26

Systemic complications of Cushing disease form excessive ACTH/ alpha-MSH secretion:

increased corticosteroids levels, high levels of GH, weight gain, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, osteoporosis, dyslipidemia and the "moon facies"

27

The irregular pattern of the oral pigmentation of Cushing disease are similar to:

that seen in patients with other forms of diffuse or multi-focal hyperpigmentation

28

Diagnosis of Cushing disease:

serum cortisol and ACTH levels