Section 5 Lecture 7 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Section 5 Lecture 7 Deck (81):
1

% of blood made of red blood cell:

45%

2

How many grams of Hb per 100 ml of blood?

15 grams % (15% of blood volume is hemoglobin

3

1 gm of hemoglobin maximally binds to __ ml of O2

1.34

4

% Aterial O2 content in blood:

20%

5

How is hemoglobin bound?

chemically

6

Signal that we have low hemoglobin and response:

hypoxia, response is to produce erythropeoitin to increase red blood cell generation

7

2 forms of blood doping:

inject EPO or lower the inspired O2 pressure (less barometric pressure)

8

Percent of O2 dissolved in plamsa:

less than 2%

9

from where is oxygen for cellular respiration attained?

bound to hemoglobin or free in plasma

10

True or False? Oxygen and carbon monoxide bind different sites of the hemoglobin.

F. same site

11

Fetal hemoglobin structure

2 alpha and 2 gamma chains

12

True or False? Fetal hemoglobin binds O2 more tightly than adult.

T

13

True or False? CO2 flux is reversible at the lung

T

14

What does CO2 form in the red blood cell?

carboxyhemoglobin, then combines with water to produce H2Co3, combines with hydrgen to form bicarbonate

15

How is bicarbonate removed from the red blood cell?

chloride exchange/shift

16

What does CO2 combine with in the plasma

water and carbonic acid

17

What enzyme increases the rate of formation of carbonic acid

carbonic anhydrase

18

% of CO2 transport as HCO3 in plasma:

70%

19

venous temperature

38 (not 37)

20

pH in the tissues vs the plasma

7.38 vs. 7.40

21

Effects of shunt on O2 and CO2 exchange:

CO2 is normal, O2 exchange is inhibited

22

Hemoglobin is saturated at __ volumes percent

20

23

What percent of oxygen is dissolved vs bound?

2% vs 98%

24

PO2 of 40 in the veins is what percent saturated?

15% satrurated

25

PO2 of 100 in the arteries is what percent saturated?

100% saturated

26

difference between CaO2 and CvO2 in volumes percent:

5 volumes percent

27

How are hemoglobin levels and the oxygen dissociation curve effected in anemia?

less hemoglobin, oxygen dissociation curve does not change

28

True or False? Every hemoglobin is saturated in anemic patients

T

29

True or False? less oxygen is delivered to peripheral tissues in patients with anemia.

T

30

Carbon monoxide binds to hemoglobin __ X more than oxygen.

200 X more than oxygen

31

How to treat carbon monoxide poisoning:

hyperbaric chamber

32

If we breathe 100% oxygen we can increases the amount of oxygen up to what %?

5 or 6%, but does not correct the oxygen delivery. If binding sites are taken by carbon monoxide this doesn't matter

33

What happens if you increase pressure of oxygen and nitrogen?

Increases total barometric pressure (check)

34

What type of gas is Ns

depression from high P(B)

35

Low oxygen arterial content

tissues still takes up same amount of oxygen if...

36

Low venous oxygen content:

when it comes back to lungs it is more difficult to raise back up to arterial level

37

Resting oxygen consumption

250 ml per minute

38

oxygen consumption = (equation)

ventilation X the extraction of oxygen

39

oxygen consumption during exercise:

4 L O2/min

40

Cardiac output during exercise:

25 L/min

41

Venous content during exercise:

decrease three fold

42

How many times higher than normal is oxygen consumption during exercise?

15 times

43

reservoir to guard against hypoxia:

spleen, low in humans and does not contract very much

44

What animals can store large amounts of hemoglobin:

seal, aquatic mammals

45

How can arterial blood be changed from 20% volume?

it can't be

46

High consumption of oxygen

PO2 drops to as low as 20 (mixd venous oxygen content of about 15) 20-5 = 15 volumes percent extracted

47

Influences dissociation curve:

d

48

modulate the hemoglobin mole

conformational change in release of oxygen, high CO2, high Hydrogen, high temperature, all release oxygen at greater rate decreasing Hb O2 and O2 saturation

49

Lower p H will shift the curve in which direction

curve shift to the right, more O2 release

50

What causes a left shift in the curve?

decrease temperature, decrease PCO2, increase phospholipids, decrease 2,3 BPG

51

Increases tissue metabolism affects temperature PCO2 and pH how?

increases temperature, increases PCO2, decreased p H

52

p50:

partial pressure at 50% saturation

53

p50 decreased temperature:

20

54

p50 at increased temperature:

40

55

2,3 BPG

intermediate metabolite for anaerobic metabolism

56

If metabolism is completely oxidative how will 2,3 BPG be affected?

it will decrease

57

CO2 production is due to:

glucose metabolism

58

Respiratory quotient is usually:

1

59

Only oxygen store in the body

bound to hemoglobin or in solution (20 volumes percent)

60

CO2 storage in body:

large, in tissues and blood

61

How does high levels of fee H+ affect the curve?

shift to the left

62

normal pH range:

7.53 to 7.45

63

P H calculation using HH eq

ratio of bicarbonate to PaCO2

64

PaCO2 is a regulator of:

pH

65

High CO2 can result in:

Co2 poisoning (PaCO2 above 65)

66

High CO2 affect on blood flow

reduces blood flow

67

CO2 dissociation curve vs O2:

linear, because Co2 is being converted and shuttle out of the cell

68

How does high O2 shift the curve?

to the right

69

oxidize fatty acids R =

0.7

70

oxidize carbs R =

1

71

oxidize protein =

0.8

72

R for most people:

0.8 -0.85

73

how is R affected when the body is stressed?

R goes closer to 1

74

anytime we talk about alveolar gas we have to subtract:

water vapor

75

alveolar ventilation changes the PaCo2 which plays an important role in:

acid/base balance and control of respiratory system

76

If compliance is decreasing, elastance is (increasing/ decreasing)

increasing (meaning stiffer lungs)

77

True or False? increased elastance indicates increased compliance.

F. stiffer lungs. elastance and compliance are inversely related

78

Normal compliance on spontaneously breathing healthy adult is approximately:

200 ml/cm H2O

79

Which lung pressures remains positive and which remains negative under physiological conditions?

transpulmonary pressure: always positive, intrapleural pressure: always negative and large

80

Is emphysema restrive or obstructive?

obstructive

81

What does the respiratory ratio represent?

Co2 production relative to O2 consumption