Flashcards in Section 5 Lecture 7 Deck (81):
% of blood made of red blood cell:
How many grams of Hb per 100 ml of blood?
15 grams % (15% of blood volume is hemoglobin
1 gm of hemoglobin maximally binds to __ ml of O2
% Aterial O2 content in blood:
How is hemoglobin bound?
Signal that we have low hemoglobin and response:
hypoxia, response is to produce erythropeoitin to increase red blood cell generation
2 forms of blood doping:
inject EPO or lower the inspired O2 pressure (less barometric pressure)
Percent of O2 dissolved in plamsa:
less than 2%
from where is oxygen for cellular respiration attained?
bound to hemoglobin or free in plasma
True or False? Oxygen and carbon monoxide bind different sites of the hemoglobin.
F. same site
Fetal hemoglobin structure
2 alpha and 2 gamma chains
True or False? Fetal hemoglobin binds O2 more tightly than adult.
True or False? CO2 flux is reversible at the lung
What does CO2 form in the red blood cell?
carboxyhemoglobin, then combines with water to produce H2Co3, combines with hydrgen to form bicarbonate
How is bicarbonate removed from the red blood cell?
What does CO2 combine with in the plasma
water and carbonic acid
What enzyme increases the rate of formation of carbonic acid
% of CO2 transport as HCO3 in plasma:
38 (not 37)
pH in the tissues vs the plasma
7.38 vs. 7.40
Effects of shunt on O2 and CO2 exchange:
CO2 is normal, O2 exchange is inhibited
Hemoglobin is saturated at __ volumes percent
What percent of oxygen is dissolved vs bound?
2% vs 98%
PO2 of 40 in the veins is what percent saturated?
PO2 of 100 in the arteries is what percent saturated?
difference between CaO2 and CvO2 in volumes percent:
5 volumes percent
How are hemoglobin levels and the oxygen dissociation curve effected in anemia?
less hemoglobin, oxygen dissociation curve does not change
True or False? Every hemoglobin is saturated in anemic patients
True or False? less oxygen is delivered to peripheral tissues in patients with anemia.
Carbon monoxide binds to hemoglobin __ X more than oxygen.
200 X more than oxygen
How to treat carbon monoxide poisoning:
If we breathe 100% oxygen we can increases the amount of oxygen up to what %?
5 or 6%, but does not correct the oxygen delivery. If binding sites are taken by carbon monoxide this doesn't matter
What happens if you increase pressure of oxygen and nitrogen?
Increases total barometric pressure (check)
What type of gas is Ns
depression from high P(B)
Low oxygen arterial content
tissues still takes up same amount of oxygen if...
Low venous oxygen content:
when it comes back to lungs it is more difficult to raise back up to arterial level
Resting oxygen consumption
250 ml per minute
oxygen consumption = (equation)
ventilation X the extraction of oxygen
oxygen consumption during exercise:
4 L O2/min
Cardiac output during exercise:
Venous content during exercise:
decrease three fold
How many times higher than normal is oxygen consumption during exercise?
reservoir to guard against hypoxia:
spleen, low in humans and does not contract very much
What animals can store large amounts of hemoglobin:
seal, aquatic mammals
How can arterial blood be changed from 20% volume?
it can't be
High consumption of oxygen
PO2 drops to as low as 20 (mixd venous oxygen content of about 15) 20-5 = 15 volumes percent extracted
Influences dissociation curve:
modulate the hemoglobin mole
conformational change in release of oxygen, high CO2, high Hydrogen, high temperature, all release oxygen at greater rate decreasing Hb O2 and O2 saturation
Lower p H will shift the curve in which direction
curve shift to the right, more O2 release
What causes a left shift in the curve?
decrease temperature, decrease PCO2, increase phospholipids, decrease 2,3 BPG
Increases tissue metabolism affects temperature PCO2 and pH how?
increases temperature, increases PCO2, decreased p H
partial pressure at 50% saturation
p50 decreased temperature:
p50 at increased temperature:
intermediate metabolite for anaerobic metabolism
If metabolism is completely oxidative how will 2,3 BPG be affected?
it will decrease
CO2 production is due to:
Respiratory quotient is usually:
Only oxygen store in the body
bound to hemoglobin or in solution (20 volumes percent)
CO2 storage in body:
large, in tissues and blood
How does high levels of fee H+ affect the curve?
shift to the left
normal pH range:
7.53 to 7.45
P H calculation using HH eq
ratio of bicarbonate to PaCO2
PaCO2 is a regulator of:
High CO2 can result in:
Co2 poisoning (PaCO2 above 65)
High CO2 affect on blood flow
reduces blood flow
CO2 dissociation curve vs O2:
linear, because Co2 is being converted and shuttle out of the cell
How does high O2 shift the curve?
to the right
oxidize fatty acids R =
oxidize carbs R =
oxidize protein =
R for most people:
how is R affected when the body is stressed?
R goes closer to 1
anytime we talk about alveolar gas we have to subtract:
alveolar ventilation changes the PaCo2 which plays an important role in:
acid/base balance and control of respiratory system
If compliance is decreasing, elastance is (increasing/ decreasing)
increasing (meaning stiffer lungs)
True or False? increased elastance indicates increased compliance.
F. stiffer lungs. elastance and compliance are inversely related
Normal compliance on spontaneously breathing healthy adult is approximately:
200 ml/cm H2O
Which lung pressures remains positive and which remains negative under physiological conditions?
transpulmonary pressure: always positive, intrapleural pressure: always negative and large
Is emphysema restrive or obstructive?