Section 6 Endochrinology Introduction Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Section 6 Endochrinology Introduction Deck (130):
1

List glands:

pineal gland, anterior pituitary, thyroid,parathyroid, thymus, pancreas, adrenal cortex, adrenal medulla, testes, ovaries, placenta

2

Hypothalamus, gland or cell?

clusters of neurons

3

Posterior pituitary, gland or cell?

Extensions of hypothalamic neurons

4

List all that belong to the peptide class:

hypothalamus, posterior pituitary, anterior pituitary, parathyroid, thymus, heart, liver, stomach and small intestines, pancreas, adipose tissue

5

List those that are steroids/ peptides:

testes, ovaries, placenta

6

List those that are peptides/ steroids:

kindey

7

List those that are amines:

pineal gland, adrenal medulla

8

List those that are steroids:

adrenal cortex, skin

9

List those that are iodinated amines/ peptides:

thyroid

10

2 sites of hormonal control that feedback to the hypothalamus:

Trophic hormone (H2) and Hormone (H3)

11

To where, besides the hypothalamus does Hormone (H3) feedback?

anterior pituitary

12

Complex polypeptides are composed of more than:

20 aa's

13

Simple polypeptides are composed of less than:

20 aa's

14

Amino acid derivatives:

single amino acid derivatives, iodothyronines

15

Cholesterol derivatives:

intact steroid nucleus, Vit D

16

True or False? Both water soluble and water insoluble hormones can be transported in the blood stream.

T

17

Water soluble hormones that can be transported via the blood stream:

peptides, amino acids

18

Water insoluble hormones that can be transported via the blood stream:

iodothyronines, cholesterol derivatives

19

2 types of cholesterol derivatives:

specific binding proteins and general binding proteins

20

Give an example of a specific binding protein:

thyroid binding globulin (TBG)

21

Give an example of a general binding protein:

albumin

22

Which endocrine organ(s) use(s) restricted circulation as its' delivery method?

pituitary gland

23

Which endocrine organ(s) use(s) target cells adjacent to release cells - cell to cell communication as its' delivery method?

Paracrine organs, ie gonads

24

Different methods of response to hormonal action:

specific receptors or local activation (inactivation) of hormone

25

What is hormone action dependent upon?

blood concentration, target cell receptors number, hormone-receptor affinity

26

Hormone action affects target cell by changing:

enzyme activity, proteins synthesis, transport, secretion rate

27

Signal transduction mechanisms:

receptor - transducer - amplifier - messenger

28

4 pathways of signal transduction:

cAMP (intracellular), Phosphatidylinositol (PIP2) turnover (Ca++/ proteins kinase C system), steroid action and intracellular receptors, tyrosine kinase receptors

29

3 types of cellular interactions:

permissive interactions, synergistic interactions, and inhibitory interactions

30

Example of permissive interactions?

without the presence of hormone B, hormone A has littler or no effect. Hormone B is said to have permissive action.

31

Explain synergistic action:

The effect of the two hormone together is greater than the sum of the individual effects force each hormone

32

Explain inhibitory interactions:

action of one hormone opposes the action of a second hormone

33

Main components of the thyroid gland:

follicular cells and colloid

34

Colloid is aka:

thyroglobulin

35

What surrounds the follicular cells with the colloid center?

capsule of connective tissue

36

What other type of cell is interspersed with the follicular cells of the thyroid gland?

C cells

37

T(4) is:

Thyroxine

38

T(3) is:

Triiodothyronine

39

T(3) and T(4) are both made from:

Tyrosine

40

Roles of iodide:

transport, peroxidase, iodination

41

Path of iodine in the thyroid gland:

transported from blood, through cell, to the colloid to combine with thyroglobulin (composed of both T3 and T4, right?), which is then transported in vesicles back into the cell for storage

42

Actions of Thyroxine:

T4 vs. T3 vs. rT3, growth and development, metabolic effects, sympathetic nervous system, temperature regulation

43

In which parts of the body does thyroxine play a role in growth and development?

skeletal system and central nervous system

44

Metabolic effects of the thyroxine:

increased basal metabolic rate (plasma membrane Sodium, K+ - ATPase, increased carbohydrate and fat utilization (demand driven), increased protein synthesis (excess leads to degradation)

45

Role of thyroxine in the sympathetic nervous system:

increased sensitivity to catecholamines

46

Pathology of the thyroid gland:

Hyper/ hypothyroid

47

What other issues are related to Hyperthyroidism?

Grave's disease (auto immune); neoplasm or autonomous nodule

48

Symptoms of hyperthyroidism:

high body temperature, excessive sweating, heat intolerant, weight loss, weakness, high heart rate, atrial arrhythmia's, tremor, nervousness, wide-eyed stare

49

Issues related to hypothyroidism:

Hashimoto's disease (autoimmune; iodine deficiency; ablation; pituitary or hypothalamic deficit; perinatal deficit - cretinism))

50

Symptoms of hypothyroid:

low body temperature, dry skin, cold intolerant, weight gain, puffy appearance, low heart rate, lethargy, sleepiness, lowering of the upper eye-lid, slow speech

51

Master gland:

pituitary gland

52

Ca++/ pH hoemostasis:

parasympatheticthyroid

53

Steroid factory:

adrenal cortex, 10g

54

postganglionic system, extension of sympathetic nervous system:

adrenal medulla

55

glucose homeostasis:

glucocorticoids, norepinephrine and epinephrine

56

Autonomous endocrine gland:

placenta, not controlled by any other tissue

57

End product inhibition:

negative feedback mechanism

58

to get to pituitary:

roof of mouth to extract adenomas, outputting of brains

59

2 tissues of pituitary gland:

anterior and posterior pituitary

60

Projection from hypothalamus

d

61

Posterior pituitary produces:

oxytocin and ADH (Vasopression)

62

Neural lobe (neural hypophesis)

Posterior pituitary

63

endocrine tissue of pituitary gland

anterior pituitary, not neurally derived, 6 hormones

64

synapse:

onto capillary bed, dumping contents here, blood supply drains the hormones that are being released

65

How many types of cells are secreting the 6 hormones of the anterior pituitary gland?

5

66

Posterior pituitary produces:

oxytocin and ADH (Vasopression)

67

Neural lobe (neural hypophesis)

Posterior pituitary

68

endocrine tissue of pituitary gland

anterior pituitary, not neurally derived, 6 hormones

69

cell bodies lie here:

hypothalamic nuclei

70

synapse:

onto capillary bed, dumping contents here, blood supply drains the hormones that are being released

71

How many types of cells are secreting the 6 hormones of the anterior pituitary gland?

5

72

This hormone, released from the pituitary gland is endorphins:

ACTH

73

What type of gland is the thyroid gland?

permissive

74

functions of epithelial cells around follicular cells:

thyroid hormones, proteins, globulins that are secreted into the colloid

75

Thyroid hormones first enter this space:

colloid space

76

What type of process is used for the release of thyroid hormones?

Double secretion process

77

True or False? Thyroid hormones are lipophilic

T

78

What is thyroid hormone stored?

must be bound, can not easily be stored because it leaks out, bound to glycoprotein in the colloid space

79

Chemical origin of thyroid hormones:

tyrosine, water soluble

80

What is required for biological activity of T3 and T4?

idoine

81

What differs between T3 and T4?

number of iodinated positions

82

T3 has complete biological activity:

F.

83

Which has less biological activity, T3 or T4

T4

84

How can T4 be made morphology active?

Deiodinate to make T3

85

T4 is essentially a:

prohormone

86

Composition of T3:

2 tyrosine + 3 iodine

87

What type of receptors for T3?

nuclear receptor

88

Thyroid hormones are ___-like compounds.

steroid

89

What is necessary to make type hormone?

iodine

90

True or False? We can synthesize iodine.

F.

91

What cells transport iodine?

follicular cells

92

What type of transport for iodide?

Sodium/iodid transporter, ATP required to increase conc of iodine 2-30 times up to 200 times

93

What happens at the same time as iodide transport not the cell?

synethiss of thyroglobuid (major component of colloid), binding protein to keep the constituents from floating away because they are lipophilic

94

From where to where is thyroglobulin secreted?

follicular cell to colloid space

95

What are the branches coming off of thyroglobulin?

tyrosine

96

Where is thyroglobulin iodinated

apical side of follicular cell

97

Pendrin:

transporter to move iodide into the colloid from follicular cell

98

What is required for idode to bind to Thyroblobulin?

Must be reactive enough to couple with tyrosine backbone, done by peroxidase and then iodination (peroxidation, essentially a free radical)

99

How many steps is thyroid peroxidase enzyme involved in?

perixidation, iondination (in presence of thyroid peroxidase), and coupling (stack to tyrosine molecules together)

100

What stimulates the grabbing up of colloid (uptake process of colloid)

pituitary

101

What causes the degradatin of the colloid structure?

fusing with lysosomes (proteases, etc.), indiscriminant digestion

102

Product of the degradation of thyroglobulin:

T1, T2, T3, T4,

103

True or False? T1 and T2 are lipophilic.

F

104

What happens to the T3 and T4 that is broken down from thyroglobulin?

released into circulation via transporters

105

how much more T4 is being released into the circulation than T3

20 times more

106

What enzyme in the tissues can snip off iodine?

deiodinases

107

Functions of in the biosynthesis force thyroid hormone:

TSH stimulates the transporter involved, 10 -250 fold increase of activity

108

TRH release TSH from:

anterior pituitary gland

109

True or False? All the breakdown products of thyroglobulin can be recycled.

T

110

What releases the major hormones for thyrotroph activation?

hypothalamus (TRH into portal circulation)

111

What stimulates the thyroid follicles?

TSh

112

What is inhibitory of thryotroph secretion of TSH?

T3, T4 would bind to thyrotroph and be converted to T3 and then act on thyrotroph

113

Actions of thyroid hormones:

transport via: thyroxine binding globulin (TBG), growth (chondroenic, not directly involved in linear growth), metabolic, sympathetic nervous system, temperature regulation

114

What binds most hormones to transport to the periphery?

albumin

115

What can bind to TBG (specific)?

T3 and T4

116

T3 can alter:

genomic functions

117

What happens to T4 in the periphery?

iodinated to T3

118

IGF1:

involved in linear growth

119

Dental connection

Tooth eruption

120

In utero, if mom is iodide deficient:

can result in demyeleniatoin that leads to retardation and cretinism

121

True or False? The effects of iodide deficiency is reversible after birth

T

122

Metabolic effects of thyroid hormones:

accelearated starvation, Vo2 increase, more fuel demand,, transport more across GI tract

123

What can happen in hyperthyroidism?

the system becomes catabolic, extreme starvation, loss of u to 50% of proteins stores

124

What muscles are affect most in hyperthyroidism?

quads, metabolic breakdown of tissues

125

How can you increase heart rate and blood pressure in an animal?

postsynaptic effect, permissive effect of thyroid hormones on therapy heart, increased beta receptors density (thyroid hormones maintain these), release of norepinephrine from sympathetic terminal to there heart, greater response in heart rate and contractility

126

Overload of thyroid hormones leads to an increase in:

increase in beta receptors

127

hashimotos's thyroiditis:

destruction of the thyroid gland

128

No idodie in diet leads to:

low thyroid hormone release, normal negative feedback system is not there, primarily colloid production will be unregulated. If stimulation is larger and strong enough you will have an increase in the size of the thyroid

129

Graves disease;

TSI's, autoimmune process that attacks thyroid gland, binds follicles and turns them on permanently, follicles are in overdrive, iodinating,etc. You are making active thyroid hormone, primary driver is some autoimmune process. Pumping out T3 and T4 which will have their effects, intense feedback on anterior pituitary and shut down of the hypothalamus.

130

Both Hashimoto's thyroiditis and Grave's disease lead to:

goiter, enlarged thyroid