Section 3 Taste and Olfaction Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Section 3 Taste and Olfaction Deck (58):
1

What taste modalities warn against potential noxious chemicals?

Sour and bitter

2

Which 3 tastes rely on G-protein-coupled receptors?

Sweet, umami and bitter

3

Which taste modaity is T1R2 + T1R3?

Sweet

4

Which taste modality is T1R1 + T1R3

Umami

5

What protein is the same bw the sweet and umami receptors?

T1R3

6

Which taste modality is the T2R family?

Bitter

7

How are different better substances detected?

By diff members of the TR2 family of receptor.

8

Which tastes are type II cells assoc w?

sweet/bitter/umami

9

What NT is released by the sweet, bitter, umami modalities?

ATP

10

Through what cells does sodium enter the cells of the tongue?

Amiloride-sensitive channels (depolarizes cell and leads to NT release)

11

How do H ions enter or the sour modality?

Via PKD2L1 ion channels

12

What ions shut down K channels?

H+ ions

13

How can taste be modified?

Leptin: released by fat cells in response to eating to give a sense of satiation, to damp response to sweet tastants OR
Increase levels of endocannabinoids: increase responses to sweet tastants

14

Supertasters:

heightened taste, esp. bitter, more fungiform papilla

15

Are there more men or women super tasters?

women, 35% of women vs 15% of men

16

What do super tasters tend not to like?

green veggies like cabbage and kale

17

How long do taste chemoreceptor cells live?

10 days

18

What do new taste cells differentiate from?

Basal cells near the base of taste bud

19

how does chemo affect taste?

kills all the taste cells and they won't be replaced until after chemo is stopped

20

Ageusia:

loss of some or all tastants

21

Hypogeusia:

dec sensitivity to some or all tastants

22

Dysgeusia:

distortion of taste of some or all or the perception of taste when stimulant is not there (gustatory hallucination)

23

Gustatory agnosia:

complete

24

Hypergeusia:

inc taste sensitiivity to some or all tastants

25

Adrenal insufficiency is aka:

Addison's disease

26

An example of hyperguesia:

Addison's disease

27

How does adrenal insufficiency lead to a decrease in the threshold for salt taste?

dec secretion of aldosterone, dec renal Na-reabsorption, fall in plasma Na conc, fall in salivary Na, 100 X dec in threshold for salt taste

28

Loss of taste is common reported with:

D-penicillamin, a copper chelator (or other metals, too)

29

What is D-penicillamin used to tx?

cystinuria, scleroderma, RA and pulmonary fibrosis

30

Taste issues most often happen:

after an injury or illness

31

T or F? 3rd molar extraction can lead to tast disorders

T

32

Injury or illnesses that may cause taste disorders:

upper res and middle ear infections, head and neck cancers, chemical exposure (insecticides, some meds, some antibiotics and antihistamines), head injury, surgeries to ear, nose, and throat, poor oral hygiene

33

What taste buds decrease with age?

Fungiform

34

What types of receptors are in the fungiform taste buds?

All 5

35

T or F? Conc of salt required to get the same level of stimulation decreases w age.

F. increases. threshold increases

36

How do afferent officers respond to taste?

some respond more strongly to one taste modality than other fibers.

37

What combine to form the sense in the primary gustatory cortex?

olfactory, somatosensory, and taste input.

38

Secondary taste area:

taste, olfaction, water, oral temp, fat texture, viscoity, grittiness, particulate quality

39

To where do odors bind?

receps on the cilia of the olfactory receptor neurons

40

T or F? Each olfactory receptor neuron expresses many types of olfactory receptors.

F. one type

41

T or F. Some olfactory receptor neurons can be activated by multiple odorants.

T.

42

T or F? One odorant can activate multiple kinds of olfactory receptor neurons

T

43

What does odor identification entail?

different activities of a population of odor receptors

44

Olfactory cell turnover rate:

every 40 days

45

Chemo: lost sense of smell, will return about ___ days after stopping the tx

40

46

What is hyposmia a common sign of?

PD and AZ

47

What can cause anosmia?

PD, AZ, viral infection, concussion, brain trauma

48

loss of the sense of smell:

anosmia

49

Incorrect perception of smell:

parosmia (ie flowers smell like something burnign)

50

Perceiving a fould, rotten smell in the absence of any stimulus:

phantosmia

51

Phatosmia can occur when?

During epiliptic seizure that originates in the medial temporal lobe

52

A seizure originating here can lead to phantosmia:

medial temporal lobe

53

1-7% of Europeans can't detect:

musk

54

What is more marked, the loss of taste or olfaction?

Olfaction

55

What has a bigger impact on taste, olfaction or gustatory input?

olfaction

56

___ kinds of olfactory cells, __ different kinds of glomerulus, all inputs to one glomerulus come from the same class of ______

300, 300, primary receptor cell

57

T or F? Neurons can respond to more than one type of odorant.

T

58

Half of the neurons in the orbitofrontal cortex:

are responsive to only one odor, and the rest to only a few