Flashcards in Section 5 Deck (65):
Treatment for COPD:
Vit D, Artificial lung transplant, or specific antioxidant gene therapy
Disease that increases lung compliance:
T or F? An anemic patient will have a increased Ca(O2).
F. decreased (check)
CO2, O2, NO, and CO (check)
Factors affecting the flow rate of gas across the alveolar-capillary membrane:
s.a., partial pressure difference of that gas across the membrane, thickness of membrane, and diffusion constant of the specific gas
If the V(T) of breathing increases than for a constant, how will the alveolar ventilation affected?
Is the airway resistance for a person with emphysema greater or less than a healthy individual?
Can a spriometer measure FRC?
What does a spriometer measure?
What factors change in a person with pulmonary fibrosis?
vital capacity and compliance both decrease, diffusion of oxygen across the alveolar/capilllary membrane decreases, respiratory rate is increased in order to maintain normal alveolar ventilation, expired ventilation must increase to maintain normal alveolar ventilation
Factors that help facilitate the unloading of O2:
decrease in pH, increase in P(VCO2), decrease in tissue P(O2)
Factors that reduce Pa(CO2):
PA(CO2) decreases, patient has fibrosis, baby is born before 32 weeks gestation
Why does the diffusion capacity of the lung decrease in a person with emphsema?
s.a. of alveoli decreases, number of capillaries decreases, alveolar ventilation decreases
In a patient with a physiological shunt in the lung:
there may be obstruction in the lung and/or the V(A)/Q ratio will be less than 1
Where would hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction most likely occur?
near the summit of Mt. Everest without supplemental oxygen
How is blood redirected in hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction?
to better ventilate portions of the lung if it occurs locally in only small portions of the lung
What will a pulmonary embolism cause?
increase in alveolar dead space, the V(A)/Q ratio increases in the affected portion of the lung, and a decrease in total pulmonary blood flow
How does the EPP move if the airway resistance increases in dynamic airway compression?
the EPP moves towards the alveoli
Neutronsmitter of the parasympathetic system:
How to treat CO poisoning:
What causes constriction of the smooth muscle in the conducting zone airways?
the release of AcH from parasympathetic neurons
True or False? A decrease in alveolar CO2 will decrease airway resistance.
Factors that will decrease airway resistance:
increase in altitude, tracheostomy, inhalation of bronchodilator, or increasing lung volume
Facts about surfactants:
produced by alveolar type II cells, decreases surface tension in the alveoli, allows equal inflation of small and larger alveoli, composed of phospholipids and proteins
Factors increasing the pulmonary vascular resistance in a patient with emphysema:
number of pulmonary capillaries decreases, P(AO2) decreases, an increased FRC compresses the pulmonary capillaries
What controls ventilation by regulating the H+ concentration of the CSF?
A decrease in what will cause a decrease in P(aCO2)?
Airflow in the large airways is:
What muscles must contract at the end of a maximal inspiration with the glottis open?
internal intercostal muscles
Organize the following from greatest to least: P(IO2), P(vO2), P (AO2)
P(IO2) > P (AO2) > P(vO2)
Why does the diffusing capacity of the lung decrease in a patient with emphysema?
because the surface area of the alveoli decreases
Factors that facilitate the unloading of oxygen from hemoglobin:
increase in phospholipid, decrease in P(VCO2), decrease in tissue P(O2)
will increase blood flow (perfusion) through the lung?
decrease in pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR), increase in the arterial to venous pressure gradient (∆P), and an increase in cardiac output..
What is altered in a patient with emphysema?
RV increases because of an increase in lung compliance AND RV increases due to flow limitation that causes air trapping.
How will a person whose spinal cord is severed (cut) at the level of T7 be affected?
decreased ability to cough
Why is the P(AO2) less than the P(IO2) (inspired partial pressure of oxygen)?
water vapor pressure increases during inspiration AND oxygen is constantly diffusing into the pulmonary capillaries
When would P(aO2) be less than normal?
if alveolar dead space increases
How can the ventilation/ percussion ratio of the lung be increased?
decreasing alveolar dead space, increasing the amount of extra pulmonary shunt, and moving from the lying down to standing position
Where does most diffusion across the alveolar capillary membrane occur at rest?
within the first not third of the pulmonary capillary
What increases during exercise due to the recruitment of pulmonary capillaries?
True or False? The D(LO2) is greater in a newborn than an adult.
How will the D(LO2) be affected if the P(IO2) increases?
it will increase
True or False? If a patient has a lung removed, their D(LO2) will increase.
What is the partial pressure of the O2 in the systemic veins is a normal individual?
What is the partial pressure is a person exercising?
less than 40 mmHg
What is the partial pressure of a person with cyanide poisoning?
greater than 40mmHg (histotoxic hypoxia- prevent use of oxygen by the cells)
Factors that will increase the O2 carrying capacity of hemoglobin in the arterial blood:
increase in the P(O2), decrease in the P(CO2), decrease in the concentration of H+, decrease in temperature
Does the amount of dissolved CO2 increase or decrease as blood moves through the systemic capillaries?
Does the amount of H (bCO2) increase or decrease as blood moves through the systemic capillaries?
Affects of increasing the P(IO2) in a patient with emphysema:
decrease in hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, increase in the P(aO2), increase in the D(LO2), decrease in the thickness of the alveolar/ capillary membrane
How are pulmonary capillaries affected during exercise?
greater recruitment of pulmonary capillaries
What returns to normal after weeks at a high altitude?
the Ca(O2) returns to normal
Function of erythropoietin:
increase the number of red blood cells
Where is most of the oxyhemoglobin formed?
in the pulmonary capillaries
Does blood phospholipid decrease or increase as it moves through systemic capillaries?
decrease (the capillaries decreases the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen)
What % of transported oxygen is dissolved in plasma?
When is the pressure of the chest wall equal and opposite to the pressure of the lung?
at FRC and the end of expiration
Does an individual who is breathing an I(IO2) of 50% at sea level have a high or low P(AO2)?
Relationship between air flow and blood flow when a person is standing:
The top of the lung has a greater air flow than blood flow
What cells secrete surfactant?
Type II cells
T or F? Surfactant causes surface tension in an alveolus to decrease as its size increases.
F. T or F? Surfactant causes surface tension in an alveolus to increase as its size decreases.
True or False? The diaphragm is an expiratory muscle.
True or False? The external intercostal muscle is an expiratory muscle.
Factors that will increase residual volume:
increase minimum volume of lung, decrease in chest wall compliance, or increase in chest wall resting volume