Section 6 pituitary Anatomy Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Section 6 pituitary Anatomy Deck (130):
1

No projections of neurons into this lobe:

anterior

2

What triggers the neuron synthesizing topic hormones?

Activity of hypothalamus, floods endocrine cells in anterior pituitary gland

3

True or False? Many neurons are needed in the hypothalamus to release hormones.

F. only a few

4

slice infindibulum:

cut off communication of both the portal system and the neural lobe, neurons may regenerate, project down, and regain some function, no blood supply will come back to anterior pituitary gland.

5

Controls of hypothalamic centers:

heat, energy, hunger, satiety, body mass, BP, HR, sweat, blood volume, intake-thirst, output-urine volume, metabolic rate, stress, growth, reproduction, lactation

6

True or False? Pain can act on the neurons that control the pituitary gland, i.e. hear baby cry and start lactating

T. let down reflex

7

Pro-opiomelanocortins (POMC):

ACTH, ADH (adrenal control)

8

Two subunit glycoprotieins:

TSH, LH, FSH, alpha unit is the same to all these

9

3 classes of hormones released from anterior pituitary gland:

glycoprotieins, pro-opiomelanocortins, large single chain proteins

10

Large single chain proteins:

GH, prolactin

11

Are PMC's small or large?

small

12

ACTH is released by this cell:

corticotroph

13

What does the hypothalamus release to activate or inhibit the corticotroph cell?

corticotropin-Release Hormone (CRH)

14

how does the CRH get from the hypothalamus to the corticotrophs?

potral circulatory

15

ACTH affects what target?

adrenal cortex (growth and function of gland)

16

Inhibiting hormones of ACTH, PIMC, MSH, B-lipotropin, gammea-lippotropin, B-endorphin, N-terminal peptide:

none

17

Major cleavage products of POMC:

ACTH, different versions of MSHs, endorphins, and others.

18

Corticotroph tumor or tumor secreting lots of ATCH:

processed via POMC (pro hormone), over-secreting ACTH, MSH, and other fragments, pigmentation coloration change

19

High secretion of ACTH:

darker pigmentation on inside of lips, tongue, and mucosa of mouth

20

alpha units are all the same for:

Two subunit glycoproteins (LH, FSH, TSH)

21

Cell type for LH:

gonadotroph (10-15% of cells)

22

TSH is aka:

Thyrotropin

23

Release hormone for TSH:

TRH (3 amm)

24

Inhibiting hormone of TSH:

Somatostatin

25

Somatostatin (ss) is always:

inhibitory factor/ hormone

26

Release hormone of LH and FSH:

GnRH

27

Target of LH:

Testis (testosterone), ovary (Estrogen/Progesterone synthesis, Follicular ovulation)

28

Only2 hormones synthesized by the same cell type:

LH and FSH

29

Cell type of FSH:

gonadotroph

30

Target of FSH:

sperm maturation, follicular growith

31

Cell type of GH:

Somatotroph (40-55%), Preg: decrease size and number

32

Functions of GH:

Full body metabolism and growth

33

Release hormone f GH:

GHRH

34

Inhibiting hormone of GH:

SS (aka GHIH)

35

Target of GH:

Liver and other tissues, growth, development, metabolic

36

Dopamine tonically inhibits mammotroph from releasing:

prolactin

37

Cell type of prolactin:

Mammotroph (10-25%)(lactotroph) Preg: increase size and number

38

Release hormone of prolactin:

Prolactin-releasign factors (?) TRH

39

Inhibiting hormone of Prolactin:

Prolactin-inhibitiing factors (?) (GAP*) Dopamine SS

40

Target of Prolactin:

Breast, lactation, growth, milk, suppresed menstrual functions

41

slic infidibulum, how are hormone levels affected:

Prolactin increases because there is no inhibition via portal system (connection wiped out) but TSH, ACTH, GH, FSH, LH are inhibited. constant inhibitory affect by the hypothalamus on prolactin secretion

42

pituitary gland controlled by:

hypothalamus and higher brain centers

43

endocrine part of adrenal gland:

cortex

44

secrete epinephrine and norepinephrine (glucose homeostasis), extension of sympathetic nervous system:

adrenal medulla

45

Counter regulatory to insulin:

glucagon

46

What controls the placenta?

none, autonomous, proesterone, estrogen, sometotropins, etc.

47

Major feedback mechanism in biology:

negative feedback

48

Location of pituitary gland:

base of skull, out pouching of brain

49

What lobe is the posterior pituitary gland?

neural lobe, neurohypophysis

50

True or False? There are synapse-synapse connections between the neural lobe and the hypothalamus

no synaptic connection, synapses neuron to capillary bed

51

To where does the structure of the pituitary gland project?

sphenoid process

52

What type of tissue is the anterior pituitary gland made of?

endocrine tissue

53

Where are the cell bodies located for the pituitary gland?

hypothalamic nuclei

54

True or False? Neurons release ADH (vasopressin) and oxytocin

T

55

What makes up the posterior pituitary gland?

Projections from the hypothalamus

56

True or False? Both the anterior and posterior pituitary gland are controlled by the hypothalamus.

T

57

Neurons of the pituitary gland synapes here:

capillary bed

58

Where are the hormones synthesized in the cell?

cell body

59

Communication in pituitary gland:

is a hormones released from synapse into circulation

60

Hormone involved in stress

ACTH

61

How are endocrine cells controlled?

hypothalamus

62

adenohypophesis communication:

portal capillary circulation a, capacity, vein, cap, vein

63

Function of portal capillary system:

Transmit signals from hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary gland (adenohypophyis)

64

Does the posterior or anterior pituitary gland require a factor?

anterior

65

Benefit of portal system (?)

Direct connection of a small pool of neurons

66

Urinating too much can be a sign of:

damage to infindibulum

67

Brain regions that provide input to the hypothalamus:

Reticular activating substance (sleep wake), Thalamus (pain), Neocortex to Limbic System (Emotion, fright, rage, smell), visual system, auditory system

68

What systems are controlled by the hypothalamus?

visceral systems

69

What controls the hypothalamus?

higher centers

70

Which hormone is derived from a precursor protein/

ACTH

71

Which are the 2 subunit hormones?

LH, FSH, TSH (affect both men and women, way to remember)

72

What % of cells in the anterior pituitary gland are corticotrophins?

15-20%

73

How many amino acids is ACTH made of?

39

74

What is the main POMC?

ACTH

75

From where are inhibiting and activating hormones released

neurons

76

What cell type releases MSH?

corticotrophs

77

Clinical indication that the ACTH system is out of whack>

change in intraoral pigment coloration

78

Percentage of cells that are Thyrotrophs:

(3-5%)

79

Is GH more involved in growth or whole body metabolism?

whole body metabolism

80

How many amino acids is somatostatin composed of?

14

81

What percentage of tissues is the mammotroph (lactotroph) made of?

10-25%

82

Major controller of prolactin:

contant inhibition via dopamine

83

How many amino acids is GH made of?

191

84

How many amino acids is prolactin made of?

199

85

True or False? prolactin is involved in milk ejection.

F. oxytocin is

86

Another function of prolactin:

suppress the menstrual cycle, longer you breast feed the longer it will be before your next cycle

87

For all except prolactin, if you cut the infundibulum stalk:

All the levels of the other hormones will decrease

88

Constantly inhibit the production of prolactin:

dopaminergic neurons, gets rid of the dopamine influence

89

Levels of this hormone are low during the day and rise 1-2 hours after you fall asleep:

GH, go to sleep and you will grow (mom says :-))

90

True or False? The growth spike from GH diminishes with age.

T

91

What will inhibit GH?

High carbohydrates, cortisol, ss

92

Will wil upregulate GH production?

Arginine

93

Pituitary stalk is aka:

Median eminence

94

Functions of cell bodies of posterior pituitary gland

make, produce and process hormones

95

True or False? Posterior pituitary gland hormones are large hormones.

F. 9 amino acids, nonapeptides

96

Half life of short peptides:

minutes to hours

97

Steroids require this for transport in system:

carrier protein

98

What is Arginine vasopressin?

ADH

99

In which nuclei are oxytocin and ADH made?

supraoptic nuclei and paraventricular nuclei (SON and PVN)

100

Classic response to oxytocin

effects on both breast tissue and uterus, cause contractile activity in muscle cells or myoepithelial cells that surround duct and breast tissues. Squeeze blind sacs filled with milk and allow milk ejection

101

What cells make milk?

Acing cells in ductal tissues

102

Myometrium is what?

smooth muscle cells of the uterus

103

Delivery (of baby):

partruition

104

True or False? Oxytocin is the trigger for birth.

F. Oxytocin can be used (patosin) pharmacologically to induce labor, but not the physiological trigger for labor

105

True or False? All biologically systems have a feedback system to maintain homeostasis.

T

106

The uterus is line with what type of fibers?

C fibers (pain receptors)

107

Stimulate cervix and stretch receptors and this will happen:

stimulate activation of pathways that lead to oxytocin release

108

How does oxytocin travel to the uterus?

Systemic circulation

109

Pushing the baby out will:

lead to more dilation, this is a positive feedback mechanism

110

What leads to the release of stretch receptor activation?

birth of baby

111

Myometrium contributes to this, in addition to pushing baby out:

delivery of the placenta

112

Muscle squeezing:

cuts off blood supply to the baby, ascetic, squeezing due to oxytocin leads to vasoconstriction so that mom doesn't bleed to death

113

What type of feedback system is related to breast feeding?

positive

114

What can happen in conjunction with breast feeding?

contractions, helps to bring the uterus back to prepregnacy size, let down reflex

115

Sex hormone:

oxytocin, receptors all throughout brain, involved in stress, empathy, social body, increased during sexual activity, increased bonding

116

Polymorphisms in oxytocin receptors:

behave differently, different levels of stress and different empathy

117

Strong stimuli from ADH:

cardiovascular effects

118

Controls of ADH release:

Osmoreceptors, volume/ pressure receptors

119

Vasopressor action:

increase blood pressure

120

2 systems that are activated to regulate ADH:

cardiovascular system and CNS

121

ADH effect these 2 systems:

kidney and cardiovascular system, pee less or drink more

122

Location of plasma receptors:

AV3V

123

Direct stimulation of supraoptic nuclei and paraventricular nuclei:

AV3V

124

2 things AV3V activates:

thirst and supraoptic nuclei and paraventricular nuclei, to add water to body

125

True or False? The thirst mechanisms has an immediate response.

F. delayed

126

How dehydrated are you by the time you sense thirst?

0.5 to 1L

127

Where is low pasta volume sensed?

changes in blood volume and plasma volume heart, aortic and carotid baroreceptors, stretch receptors (C fibers and other A type fibers)

128

When blood pressure is high how is the CNS affected?

shut down

129

True or False? When blood volume decreases more neural input is sent to the CNS to increase blood volumes.

F. less neural input

130

True or False? Decreases capillary hydrostatic pressure will lead to the recruitment of extracellular fluid.

F.