Flashcards in Section 2 Lecture 3 Deck (83):

1

## Benefit of our circulation being configured in parallel system:

### each organ can have different metabolic levels/ permutations of blood flow

2

## Pulmonary circulation is AKA:

### central circulation

3

## What is the stressed volume tanslocator ?

### the heart

4

## Produces the standing gradients:

### stressed volume translocator

5

## Which has higher pressure, L aorta or R aorta?

### L (5 mm Hg vs. 2mm Hg)

6

## Pressure in pulmonary artery:

### 20 mm Hg

7

## pressure in aorta:

### 95 mm Hg (avg P in human aorta)

8

## R =

### (Change in P)/ Q

9

## Change in P =

### Q X R

10

## Continuity of flow principle:

###
conservation of mass, what enters one end must exit the other

11

## T or F. Pressure drop is uniform across each element of the circulatory system.

### F. not uniform

12

## Pressure across each part of the circulatory system is a function of:

### the R of each element

13

## Q =

### (Change in P)/ R

14

## What percentage of the total BV is in the capillaries and venous system?

###
65%

15

## What percentage of the BV is in the arteries and arterioles?

###
2-%

16

## High Pressure Reservoir:

### arteries (not arterioles, right?)

17

## Volume reservoir:

### the capillaries and venous system

18

## Pressure of blood entering capillaries:

### 20-25 mm Hg

19

## What percentage of the total BV is in the high pressure reservoir?

### 20%

20

## What % of BV is in the arterioles?

### 15%

21

## Is there a larger BV in the higher pressure reservoir or the arterioles?

### HPR

22

## The greatest pressure drop in the cardiovascular system occurs here:

### arterioles

23

## Why is the change in pressure NOT proportional to flow in the circulation?

###
bc the flow is constant throughout

24

## Pre-capillary resistance vessels:

### arterioles

25

##
These vessels have a high variable resistance:

### arterioles

26

## Slope of the line graph of change in pressure vs. flow?

###
1/R = conductance

27

## What does the slope of the line graph of change in pressure vs. flow?

###
Conductance (1/R)

28

## T or F? The change in pressure, the resistance and the flow all stay constant throughout the circulatory system.

### T

29

## This is the ease with which fluid can pass thru tube:

### condunctance

30

## What happens if you decrease slope of the line graph of change in pressure vs. flow?

### increase resistance

31

## If you decrease resistance in a vessel how will the conductance be effected?

### it will increase

32

## If you decrease resistance in a vessel how will the flow be effected?

### it will increase

33

##
How does our circulation regulate flow given that the driving force is the same throughout the system?

### alteration of the resistance of the vessels

34

## What is the head pressure and what is the tail pressure in our circulatory system?

###
head- pressure in aorta

tail - pressure in right atrium

35

## T or F L and R heart always give the same output.

### F. In the health individual they should

36

## CO of avg heart:

### 5L/min

37

## Resistance in the systemic portion of our circulation for healthy adult:

### 28 mmHg/L/min

38

## Resistance in the pulmonary portion of our circulation for healthy adult:

### 3 mmHg/L/min

39

## The pressure on the pulmonary side of our circulation is what fraction of that of the systemic?

### 1/6

40

## Why is the systemic circulations pressure so much higher?

### longer (6 times greater resistance) increase length, increase SA bw lamina, decrease velocity, decrease flow

41

## How much harder must the LV work to drive the same flow as the R ventricle?

### 6 times harder

42

## T or F? Resistance is proportional to tube length.

###
T

43

## T or F? Resistance is proportional to fluid viscocity.

###
T

44

## T or F? Resistance is proportional to tube radius^4.

###
F.

45

## T or F? Flow is proportional to presure gradient.

###
T

46

## T or F? Flow is proportional to tube radius^4.

###
T

47

## T or F? Flow is proportional totube length.

###
F inversely

48

## T or F? Flow is proportional to viscocity.

### F. inversely

49

## Flow =

### (Pressure gradient X tube radius^4)/ (tube length X viscosity)

50

## Double the radius you will increase the flow rate how many times?

### 16 times (2^4 = 16)

51

## What is the relationsihp bw resistncne and flow?

### 4th power relationship bw resistance and flow

52

## If you increase the surface area bw the lamina you increase:

### pathway length

53

## If you decrease the # of lamina you decrease:

### pathway resistance

54

## What confers viscositiy on blood?

### % of RBC

55

## too many RBCs in blood:

### polycythemia

56

## How will anemia change resistance?

### lowers resistance (lower hematocrit) throughout the whole body

57

## Viscosity goes down, flow will go:

### up

58

## What is the typical hematocrit % range?

### 35-50% hematocrit

59

## Viscocity of water:

### 1cP

60

## viscosity of plasma:

### 2cP

61

## Normal range of viscocity of blood:

### 2.8 - 4cP

62

## If viscosity changes it's effects on the circulation will be:

### Universal

63

## T or F? BV's change length in a fully grown adult.

### F

64

## T or F? Viscosity is a highly regulated term

### T

65

## If (Pa-Pv) is decreased, how will the flow though each organ system be effected, if at all?

### flow will decrease in all organ systems

66

## If the viscosity (n) increases how, if at all, will the flow though each organ system be effected?

### flow will decrease in all organ systems

67

## If the radius of the vessels in one organ system increase, how will it affect the flow through the other organ systems?

### it won't effect the other organ systems (why wouldn't it decrease in the other systems? If overall flow is the same, when one organ system gets a higher flow rate, the others must get a lower flow rate, right? I guess this is an isolated system and not what would happen in our body?)

68

## How is the flow in one organ system kept the same while the flow through another is increased due to an increase in vessels radius?

### the heart adjusts the CO

69

## velocity =

### flow/X-area

70

## T or F? Smaller tubes have a smaller cross sectional area.

### F. larger

71

## What does continuity of flow mean in our CS?

### larger x sectional area = slower fluid flow

72

## cross sectional area of aorta vs. capillaries:

### 4 cm^2 vs. 3,000cm^2

73

## Flow through aorta vs. flow through capillaries:

### 20 cm/s in aorta - 0.03 cm/s (very slow)

74

## Capilllaries provide both:

### larger surface area and slower rate of flow

75

## Which have a larger X-sectional area, arteries or veins?

### veins 4 vs 6cm^2

76

## is the X-sectional area of the capillaries of the lungs greater or those of the extremities?

### lungs (really?!)

77

## Laminar flow

### Running along its own streamline pathway through the vessel

78

## Streamline flow

### silent flow

79

## The sounds that stethoscopes can hear are a result of _____ flow

### turbulent

80

## When does turbulent flow occur in the healthy individual?

### Only when rapidly ejected out of the heart in normal conditions

81

## the greatest velocity with which a fluid can flow through a given conduit without becoming turbulent:

### critical velocity

82

## Q/P for laminar flow increases ____ while turbulent flow increases in this fashion.

### linearly, non-linearly (greater change in P with each change in Q)

83