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Flashcards in Section 2 Lecture 3 Deck (83):
1

Benefit of our circulation being configured in parallel system:

each organ can have different metabolic levels/ permutations of blood flow

2

Pulmonary circulation is AKA:

central circulation

3

What is the stressed volume tanslocator ?

the heart

4

Produces the standing gradients:

stressed volume translocator

5

Which has higher pressure, L aorta or R aorta?

L (5 mm Hg vs. 2mm Hg)

6

Pressure in pulmonary artery:

20 mm Hg

7

pressure in aorta:

95 mm Hg (avg P in human aorta)

8

R =

(Change in P)/ Q

9

Change in P =

Q X R

10

Continuity of flow principle:

conservation of mass, what enters one end must exit the other

11

T or F. Pressure drop is uniform across each element of the circulatory system.

F. not uniform

12

Pressure across each part of the circulatory system is a function of:

the R of each element

13

Q =

(Change in P)/ R

14

What percentage of the total BV is in the capillaries and venous system?

65%

15

What percentage of the BV is in the arteries and arterioles?

2-%

16

High Pressure Reservoir:

arteries (not arterioles, right?)

17

Volume reservoir:

the capillaries and venous system

18

Pressure of blood entering capillaries:

20-25 mm Hg

19

What percentage of the total BV is in the high pressure reservoir?

20%

20

What % of BV is in the arterioles?

15%

21

Is there a larger BV in the higher pressure reservoir or the arterioles?

HPR

22

The greatest pressure drop in the cardiovascular system occurs here:

arterioles

23

Why is the change in pressure NOT proportional to flow in the circulation?

bc the flow is constant throughout

24

Pre-capillary resistance vessels:

arterioles

25

These vessels have a high variable resistance:

arterioles

26

Slope of the line graph of change in pressure vs. flow?

1/R = conductance

27

What does the slope of the line graph of change in pressure vs. flow?

Conductance (1/R)

28

T or F? The change in pressure, the resistance and the flow all stay constant throughout the circulatory system.

T

29

This is the ease with which fluid can pass thru tube:

condunctance

30

What happens if you decrease slope of the line graph of change in pressure vs. flow?

increase resistance

31

If you decrease resistance in a vessel how will the conductance be effected?

it will increase

32

If you decrease resistance in a vessel how will the flow be effected?

it will increase

33

How does our circulation regulate flow given that the driving force is the same throughout the system?

alteration of the resistance of the vessels

34

What is the head pressure and what is the tail pressure in our circulatory system?

head- pressure in aorta
tail - pressure in right atrium

35

T or F L and R heart always give the same output.

F. In the health individual they should

36

CO of avg heart:

5L/min

37

Resistance in the systemic portion of our circulation for healthy adult:

28 mmHg/L/min

38

Resistance in the pulmonary portion of our circulation for healthy adult:

3 mmHg/L/min

39

The pressure on the pulmonary side of our circulation is what fraction of that of the systemic?

1/6

40

Why is the systemic circulations pressure so much higher?

longer (6 times greater resistance) increase length, increase SA bw lamina, decrease velocity, decrease flow

41

How much harder must the LV work to drive the same flow as the R ventricle?

6 times harder

42

T or F? Resistance is proportional to tube length.

T

43

T or F? Resistance is proportional to fluid viscocity.

T

44

T or F? Resistance is proportional to tube radius^4.

F.

45

T or F? Flow is proportional to presure gradient.

T

46

T or F? Flow is proportional to tube radius^4.

T

47

T or F? Flow is proportional totube length.

F inversely

48

T or F? Flow is proportional to viscocity.

F. inversely

49

Flow =

(Pressure gradient X tube radius^4)/ (tube length X viscosity)

50

Double the radius you will increase the flow rate how many times?

16 times (2^4 = 16)

51

What is the relationsihp bw resistncne and flow?

4th power relationship bw resistance and flow

52

If you increase the surface area bw the lamina you increase:

pathway length

53

If you decrease the # of lamina you decrease:

pathway resistance

54

What confers viscositiy on blood?

% of RBC

55

too many RBCs in blood:

polycythemia

56

How will anemia change resistance?

lowers resistance (lower hematocrit) throughout the whole body

57

Viscosity goes down, flow will go:

up

58

What is the typical hematocrit % range?

35-50% hematocrit

59

Viscocity of water:

1cP

60

viscosity of plasma:

2cP

61

Normal range of viscocity of blood:

2.8 - 4cP

62

If viscosity changes it's effects on the circulation will be:

Universal

63

T or F? BV's change length in a fully grown adult.

F

64

T or F? Viscosity is a highly regulated term

T

65

If (Pa-Pv) is decreased, how will the flow though each organ system be effected, if at all?

flow will decrease in all organ systems

66

If the viscosity (n) increases how, if at all, will the flow though each organ system be effected?

flow will decrease in all organ systems

67

If the radius of the vessels in one organ system increase, how will it affect the flow through the other organ systems?

it won't effect the other organ systems (why wouldn't it decrease in the other systems? If overall flow is the same, when one organ system gets a higher flow rate, the others must get a lower flow rate, right? I guess this is an isolated system and not what would happen in our body?)

68

How is the flow in one organ system kept the same while the flow through another is increased due to an increase in vessels radius?

the heart adjusts the CO

69

velocity =

flow/X-area

70

T or F? Smaller tubes have a smaller cross sectional area.

F. larger

71

What does continuity of flow mean in our CS?

larger x sectional area = slower fluid flow

72

cross sectional area of aorta vs. capillaries:

4 cm^2 vs. 3,000cm^2

73

Flow through aorta vs. flow through capillaries:

20 cm/s in aorta - 0.03 cm/s (very slow)

74

Capilllaries provide both:

larger surface area and slower rate of flow

75

Which have a larger X-sectional area, arteries or veins?

veins 4 vs 6cm^2

76

is the X-sectional area of the capillaries of the lungs greater or those of the extremities?

lungs (really?!)

77

Laminar flow

Running along its own streamline pathway through the vessel

78

Streamline flow

silent flow

79

The sounds that stethoscopes can hear are a result of _____ flow

turbulent

80

When does turbulent flow occur in the healthy individual?

Only when rapidly ejected out of the heart in normal conditions

81

the greatest velocity with which a fluid can flow through a given conduit without becoming turbulent:

critical velocity

82

Q/P for laminar flow increases ____ while turbulent flow increases in this fashion.

linearly, non-linearly (greater change in P with each change in Q)

83

Flow is proportional to what in turbulent flow?

to square root of delta P (less efficient)