Flashcards in Section 6 Female Reproduction Deck (72):
Do increased estrogen levels negatively or positively feedback to GnRH in the early to mid-follicular phase?
Do increased estrogen levels negatively or positively feedback to FSH in the early to mid-follicular phase?
Do increased estrogen levels negatively or positively feedback to granuloma cells in the early to mid-follicular phase?
Do increased estrogen levels negatively or positively feedback to LH in the early to mid-follicular phase?
Does high estrogen output negatively or positively feedback to GnRH in the late follicular phase and ovulation?
Does inhibin negatively or positively feedback to FSH in the late follicular phase and ovulation?
Do small amounts of progesterone negatively or positively feedback to GnRH in the late follicular phase and ovulation?
Do small amounts of progesterone negatively or positively feedback to LH in the late follicular phase and ovulation?
On which cells do androgens act?
Increased levels of what will inhibit GNRH in the early to mid-luteal phase?
estrogen, progesterone, and inhibin
True or False? Increased levels of estrogen, progesterone, and inhibin inhibit both FSH and LH.
T. check (both anterior and posterior pituitary gland.
From where does the corpus luteum arise?
Theca cells are analogous to:
Theca call function:
granulosa cells are analogous to:
male sertoli cells
What do granuloma cells get surrounded by?
How many follicles does one egg contain?
What is the germ cell number in the ovary dependent upon?
How many ova and follicles are produced in utero?
How many ova do women have at birth?
about 1 million in the ovarian tissue
True or False? There is a constant degradation of follicles throughout life.
To what age can sperm production occur?
Functions of follicle that develops and extrudes a viable ovum:
1st half of ovarian cycle:
develop and mature follicles
2nd half of ovarian cycle:
structure to support implantion and successful pregnancy
Follicular phase is akaZ:
The proliferative phase is dependent upon:
The luteal phase is dependent upon:
progesterone, enhance secretions
grnaulosa, and ova, theca cells outside basement membrane ( analogous to: interstitial cells and stroll cells)
Fluid filled cavity
What breaks down membrane before extrusion?
enzymes and pressure
T or F. Women can feel which ovary is ovulating.
T. because of pain receptors
estrogen dependent (check)
Remnant follicle because
progesterone factory, taking up, cholesterol filled, less estrogen but still being releases
high estrogen, low progesterone. opposite for next phase
Follicle structure from inside to outside:
ovum, granulosa, basement membrane, theca cells
GnRH release causes release of:
LH and FSH
Primary hormone in proliferative phase:
endometrium increases in size, more vessels grow in (all estrogen dependent)
What happens to ductal tissue
ductal tissues become secretory to supply nutrients to implanting fertilized structure, latches on with fertilization, depend on secretion from uterus to provide energy
Is there an inc or decrease in temperature
1/2 degree increase, progesterone effect
How to know when you are ovulating?
vaginal temperature, core temperature
Granulosa cells have what type of an effect?
auto and paracrin effect
Which cells are increased more in the prol phase?
True or False? Theca cells have aromatase.
Early and mid follicular phase:
drive production of estrogen locally to have auto and paracrine feedback to make more and more granuloma cells (more local estrogen production)
What type of effect does an increase in estrogen levels have?
central effect, more and more granuloma cells with aromatase release (check)
What leads to the blips of LH and FSH (overcoming the inhibitory effect)?
Supersensitation of cells to GnRH
What happens within 24 hours of LH and FSH surge
release of ovum
G cells at end of follicular phase
receptors for LH, LH then drives cholesterol side chain cleavage to progesterone
Are you producing more progesterone or estrogen in the secretory phse?
Granuloma cells lose sensitivity to:
True or False? Estrogen cases contractions of uterus while progesterone relaxes uterus.
HCG coming from concepsus:
rescur c. luteum to maintain progesterone levels, and progesterone levels keep rising, HCG stays to maintiain uterine and breast tissue to convert to nutritive supply to the developing placenta
What is the nutritive supply for the developing plancenta
lose LH and central drive, lose the ability to make progesterone and go into menses (check)
No progesterone input to uterus:
Estrogen replacement therapy:
highly mitotic action, breast cancer and ovarian cancer risk, neoplastic behavior
genomic and mitotic actions
True or False? Estrogen is a calcium antagost.
True or False? Estrogen and progesterone both have central binding activities.
Why does cardiovascular risk increase after ?
don't have calcium antagonism
Exhaustion of primordial follicles:
Responsible for hot flashes:
T. Sex steroids alter temperature set point.
T (by acting on the hypothalamus)
Does the phase of the vagina increase or decrease after pregnancy
True or False? Luteal phase is a friendly sperm environment.
F. unfriendly. (more basic)
What happens after fertilization?
uterus supplies nutrients, to transport across placenta and placenta takes over as hormones factory and autonomously secretory in nature
Major anabolic phase of pregnancy:
1st half, storage mode,
Human placental lactate can create:
gestational diabetes, too much insulin resistance, and no control of glucose levels