Section 6 Female Reproduction Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Section 6 Female Reproduction Deck (72):
1

Do increased estrogen levels negatively or positively feedback to GnRH in the early to mid-follicular phase?

neg

2

Do increased estrogen levels negatively or positively feedback to FSH in the early to mid-follicular phase?

negatively

3

Do increased estrogen levels negatively or positively feedback to granuloma cells in the early to mid-follicular phase?

positively

4

Do increased estrogen levels negatively or positively feedback to LH in the early to mid-follicular phase?

negatively

5

Does high estrogen output negatively or positively feedback to GnRH in the late follicular phase and ovulation?

positively

6

Does inhibin negatively or positively feedback to FSH in the late follicular phase and ovulation?

negatively

7

Do small amounts of progesterone negatively or positively feedback to GnRH in the late follicular phase and ovulation?

positively

8

Do small amounts of progesterone negatively or positively feedback to LH in the late follicular phase and ovulation?

positively

9

On which cells do androgens act?

granulosa cells

10

Increased levels of what will inhibit GNRH in the early to mid-luteal phase?

estrogen, progesterone, and inhibin

11

True or False? Increased levels of estrogen, progesterone, and inhibin inhibit both FSH and LH.

T. check (both anterior and posterior pituitary gland.

12

From where does the corpus luteum arise?

ovulated follicle

13

Theca cells are analogous to:

leydig cells

14

Theca call function:

make testosterone

15

granulosa cells are analogous to:

male sertoli cells

16

What do granuloma cells get surrounded by?

theca cells

17

How many follicles does one egg contain?

one

18

What is the germ cell number in the ovary dependent upon?

age

19

How many ova and follicles are produced in utero?

5-7 million,

20

How many ova do women have at birth?

about 1 million in the ovarian tissue

21

Follicles contain:

ova

22

True or False? There is a constant degradation of follicles throughout life.

T

23

To what age can sperm production occur?

70's

24

Functions of follicle that develops and extrudes a viable ovum:

?

25

1st half of ovarian cycle:

develop and mature follicles

26

2nd half of ovarian cycle:

structure to support implantion and successful pregnancy

27

Follicular phase is akaZ:

proliferative phase

28

The proliferative phase is dependent upon:

estrogen, mainly

29

The luteal phase is dependent upon:

progesterone, enhance secretions

30

Inside follicle:

grnaulosa, and ova, theca cells outside basement membrane ( analogous to: interstitial cells and stroll cells)

31

Antrum:

Fluid filled cavity

32

What breaks down membrane before extrusion?

enzymes and pressure

33

T or F. Women can feel which ovary is ovulating.

T. because of pain receptors

34

Extrusion is:

estrogen dependent (check)

35

Remnant follicle because

progesterone factory, taking up, cholesterol filled, less estrogen but still being releases

36

folicular phase:

high estrogen, low progesterone. opposite for next phase

37

Follicle structure from inside to outside:

ovum, granulosa, basement membrane, theca cells

38

GnRH release causes release of:

LH and FSH

39

Primary hormone in proliferative phase:

endometrium increases in size, more vessels grow in (all estrogen dependent)

40

What happens to ductal tissue

ductal tissues become secretory to supply nutrients to implanting fertilized structure, latches on with fertilization, depend on secretion from uterus to provide energy

41

Is there an inc or decrease in temperature

1/2 degree increase, progesterone effect

42

How to know when you are ovulating?

vaginal temperature, core temperature

43

Granulosa cells have what type of an effect?

auto and paracrin effect

44

Which cells are increased more in the prol phase?

granulosa

45

True or False? Theca cells have aromatase.

F

46

Early and mid follicular phase:

drive production of estrogen locally to have auto and paracrine feedback to make more and more granuloma cells (more local estrogen production)

47

What type of effect does an increase in estrogen levels have?

central effect, more and more granuloma cells with aromatase release (check)

48

What leads to the blips of LH and FSH (overcoming the inhibitory effect)?

Supersensitation of cells to GnRH

49

What happens within 24 hours of LH and FSH surge

release of ovum

50

G cells at end of follicular phase

receptors for LH, LH then drives cholesterol side chain cleavage to progesterone

51

Are you producing more progesterone or estrogen in the secretory phse?

progesterone

52

Granuloma cells lose sensitivity to:

check

53

True or False? Estrogen cases contractions of uterus while progesterone relaxes uterus.

T

54

HCG coming from concepsus:

rescur c. luteum to maintain progesterone levels, and progesterone levels keep rising, HCG stays to maintiain uterine and breast tissue to convert to nutritive supply to the developing placenta

55

What is the nutritive supply for the developing plancenta

Placental wall

56

No HCG:

lose LH and central drive, lose the ability to make progesterone and go into menses (check)

57

No progesterone input to uterus:

enter menses

58

Estrogen replacement therapy:

highly mitotic action, breast cancer and ovarian cancer risk, neoplastic behavior

59

Steroids:

genomic and mitotic actions

60

True or False? Estrogen is a calcium antagost.

T

61

True or False? Estrogen and progesterone both have central binding activities.

T

62

Why does cardiovascular risk increase after ?

don't have calcium antagonism

63

Exhaustion of primordial follicles:

menopause

64

E(2) is:

estradiol

65

Responsible for hot flashes:

progesterone

66

T. Sex steroids alter temperature set point.

T (by acting on the hypothalamus)

67

Does the phase of the vagina increase or decrease after pregnancy

decreases

68

True or False? Luteal phase is a friendly sperm environment.

F. unfriendly. (more basic)

69

What happens after fertilization?

uterus supplies nutrients, to transport across placenta and placenta takes over as hormones factory and autonomously secretory in nature

70

Major anabolic phase of pregnancy:

1st half, storage mode,

71

Human placental lactate can create:

gestational diabetes, too much insulin resistance, and no control of glucose levels

72

hPL:

human placental lactin (check), growth hormone like, responsible for maternal insulin insensitivity