Flashcards in Section 3 Lecture 7 Deck (46):
Which neurological disorder has an uneven distribution worldwide?
MS, environmental factor?
Neurological disorders that are adult onset:
MS, AD, CTE (chronic taumatic encephalopathy)
Does MS affect men or women more?
women, onset in 30's
Cause of MS:
multifactorial, AI process causing inflammation and destruction of myelin
What happens to the axons after the myelin is lost?
it is replaced w scar-tissue-sclerosis
scar tissue is aka:
Areas of inflammation/demy in MS:
plaques, seen on MRIs
Fxns affected by MS:
Can be sensory, motor, cognitive, affective, depending on CNS site affected
Biomarker for MS:
There is an increased frequency of ___ with MS
seizures (2-3% w MS have seizures)
Why is diagnosing MS sometimes difficult?
variability of symptoms
Subtypes of MS:
Relapsing-Remitting 5%, Secondary-Progressive (after about 10 yrs), Primary-Progressive 10%, Progressive-Relapsing 5%
Symptoms of MS worsen with:
inc body temps, n. impulses slow or fail
Do MS exacerbations increase or decrease during pregnancy?
Do MS exacerbations increase or decrease after pregnancy?
increase (inc levels of immunosuppressants in body)
What drugs can a woman take for MS while pregnant or breastfeeding?
Tx for MS:
B-interferon (Avonex), slows progression
40-50% of people w AD are over the age of:
Causes of AD:
familial: early onset, genetic OR late onset: unknown cause (env., genetics?)
Symptoms of AD:
dementia, loss of cog fxn and memory
progressive decline in memory, mental fxn, acquired intellectual skills:
This is a cognitive test that can be done for AD:
"mini mental status exam"
How can a PET help determine whether a person has AD or not?
brain activity and presence of abnormal protein (amyloid)
Which lobes of the brain seem to accumulate amyloid at the slowest rate according to the image in the slides?
3 causes for dementia besides AD:
vascular, Lewy body, or mixed dementia
vascular dementia is aka:
vascular cognitive impairment
What causes vascular dementia?
impaired blood supply (stroke or smaller bleeds or blockages), 20-30%
What is mixed dementia:
combo of symptoms of vascular dementia, AD, and dementia w Lewy bodies
Where do CNS changes occur with AD?
brain, cerebral cortex and subcortical structures of the limbic system
What structures are affected first in AD?
Those mediating memory
What do AD plaques contain?
amyloid protein and degenerated cells
Precursors of amyloid are encoded by genes on which chromosome?
T or F? AD leads to the eventual death of neurons.
What are tangles?
hyperphosphorylated tau protein in pyramidal cells
What nucleus supplies AcH to the cortex?
subcortical cholinergic nucleus
Tx for AD:
block enzyme that degrades AcH ("Aricept") or "Namenda" which blocks glutamate receps (too much glutamatergic activity can cause cell damage)
What is death typically related to in pts w AD?
medical causes secondary to immobility, i.e. infections or pneumonia
Avg life expectancy of a person w AD after diagnosis:
Cause of CTE:
head injury, concussion or exposure to blast wave energy
Symptoms of CTE:
Cognitive and affective symptoms (depression and suicide), problems with memory, impaired judgement, impulse control, and aggression
Short-term effects of CTE:
damage to or degeneration of major axon tracts
Long-term effects of CTE:
accumulation of "hyperphosphorylated tau protein" in neurons of the cerebral cortex and hippocampus, then cell death
Tx for CTE:
same as AD and MS, supportive care and therapy
3 common issues w pts w CNS damage:
mobility impairment, loss of fine motor control, lack of $
What type of coordination is required to brush your teeth?