Section 3 Lecture 6 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Section 3 Lecture 6 Deck (82):
1

What does DD stand for:

developmental disability

2

In order to be classified as a developmental disability in must occur before what age?

22, in NYS

3

List of DD's:

autism, ID, CP, epilepsy/seizure disorder, neurological impairment, traumatic brain injury (22 or younger in NYS)

4

Two causes of DS:

trisomy-21 (all cells w 47 chromosomes) and trisomy mosaic (Some cells have 46 chromosomes, some have 47)

5

Most children w DS are born to (younger/older) women.

younger

6

Who is at greater risk for have a child w DS, younger or older women?

older

7

What % of DS babies result in miscarriage?

75%

8

How to detect DS:

amniocentesis

9

Are older dads at a higher risk of having a child w DS?

Yes

10

DS characteristics:

Higher arched palate, underdeveloped midface, and development of the CNS, face and mouth altered

11

An ID is clasified as an IQ lower than:

70

12

T or F? There is a huge range of IQ's in DS.

T

13

Which portion of the brain is most affected with DS?

cortex, brain is smaller overall (about 25% smaller?)

14

Can strabismus be corrected?

yes, by surgically shortening an occular m.

15

Mx issues that come with DS:

heart surgery, strabismus, myopia, spontaneous nystagmus, short, obese, shorter life expectancy, protruding tongue, hypotonia w delayed M milestones, early onset Alzheimers, cervical spine instability (atlanto-axial subluxation: too much moves at the j bw skull and cord, danger of s.c. injury (positioning in dental chair)

16

nearsightedness is aka:

myopia

17

Why are DS and AD connected?

1 of the chromosomes implicated in AD is #21. Extra 21 means more likelihood of developing AD

18

What is atlanto-axial subluxation?

too much moves at the j bw skull and s.c., danger of s.c. injury in positioning in dental chair. Atlas can project too far anterior when leaning forward

19

The paralympics is for people w:

physical disability

20

The special olympics is for people w:

ID/DD

21

Issues related to DS affecting dental tx:

IS dysfunction, abnormal develop of teeth, incorrect # of teeth, late eruption of baby teeth, inc gum disease, retention of baby teeth, different order of tooth eruption, large/ small tongue, large/small jaw, grooves on tongue, behavioral issues, seizures, position in the dental chair bc of cervical instability, cognitive limitations.

22

Epilepsy is aka:

seizure disorder

23

What % of people w seizure disorders can not control the seizures w drugs?

35%

24

Define intractable:

can not control with drugs

25

Recurrent, unprovoked seizures:

seizure disorder

26

What can cause a child to have a seizure if its not due to epilepsy?

High fever

27

Neurological basis of seizures:

spontaneous, recurrent, simultaneous, massive discharges of neurons (AP's at the same time)

28

Cause of seizure disorders:

DD, CP, DS, genetic mutations in genes affecting receptors/ transmitters in the brain, head injury, metabolic disturbances, paraneoplastic syndrome (metabolic effects of cancer on tissue), epilepsy secondary to cancer/tumors, brain tumors, autoimmune epilepsy (ABs to key proeins in neurotransmission), alcohol withdrawal

29

PET scan measures:

metabolic activity

30

Epilepsy syndromes:

Lennox-Gastaux syndrome, Benign Rolandic Epilepsy, Landau-Kleffner Syndrome, Rasmussen's syndrome, Dravet Syndrome, Infalntile spasms

31

2 major classes of seizures:

partial (localized to a specific region) and generalized (all over brain)

32

How many types of seizures are there?

40+

33

What varies w seizure type?

part of CNS involved

34

2 types of partial (focal) seizures:

simple and complex

35

The progression of seizure contractions across the body in Jacksonian epilepsy reflects:

the orderly map of the body in MC, the "March of Epilepsy", consciousness remains during

36

Movement or sensory experience w no loss of consciousness or postural control:

partial simple seizure

37

Partial complex seizures originate:

in the temporal lobe

38

What types of movements are involved with partial complex seizures?

complex moves (lip-smacking)

39

Are pts conscious or unconscious during partial (focal) seizures?

conscious

40

Are pts conscious or unconscious during partial complex seizures?

not fully conscious, may not remember the seizure

41

What type of seizure is often preceded by an "aura?"

Partial complex seizures

42

Do people fall to the ground immediately with a partial complex seizure?

no, they feel funny prior

43

How do partial complex seizures begin?

as focal and spread or "generalize"

44

2 major classes of generalized seizures:

Tonic-clonic (grand mal) and absense (petit mal)

45

Tonic-clonic seizure:

protective reflexes don't work, reflexes involving vestibular input don't work, pt instnatly looses consciousness and falls, initial period of rigidity

46

What type of seizure results in immediate loss of consciousness and falling?

tonic-clonic

47

What is the tonic phase?

Full body rigidity

48

What is the clonic phase?

back and forth moves of all body parts (alternating contraction of agonists and antagonists) (often loss of bladder control)

49

What type of seizures can have an environmental stimulus?

tonic-clonic

50

Seizure first aid:

keep person safe, don't hold down, don't put anything in the mouth

51

When are tonic-clonic seizures dangerous?

Status epilepticus: continues for more than 5 minutes, tx with IV drugs and life support (resp compromised)

52

How long do most seizures last?

a few minutes

53

What is the period after a seizure called?

Post-ictal period

54

How long does the post-ictal period last?

few minutes to several hours of deep sleep

55

Which parts of the brain are involved in absence seizures?

the whole brain (petit mal)

56

What does a absence seizure look like?

No loss of postural tone, looks like kid is daydreaming, may not be recognized as a seizure

57

Who are affected by absence seizures?

children, frequently outgrown

58

EEG are used to:

Record seizure type and look for seizure focus, electrodes on scalp record many neurons

59

Duration of EEG recording:

less than one hour

60

What does LTM stand for?

Long-term monitoring, usually w video recording as well

61

When is a more invasive EEG with electrodes on the dura used?

When there is a seizure focus, to try to localize, PET can help too

62

How can a seizure focus be localized?

EEG w electrodes on dura or PET

63

AED drugs stands for:

Anti-Epileptic Drugs

64

Break-through seizure:

when a pt will has a seizure despite being on medications

65

Drugs for seizures:

Tegretol, Depakote, Lamictal, Felbamate, Dilantin, Keppra, Neurontin, Onfi, Topamaz, Manzel, Vimpat

66

T or F? Most people can control their seizures by taking 1 Mx.

F. some take 4-5

67

How do AED's work?

dec excitation, inc inhibition by inc GABA, or alter levels or receps

68

How is the correct dosage of Mx often achieved with AED's?

blood levels

69

Side effects of AEDs:

sedation, Vit D metabolism, bone density, triggering of allergic rxn, weight gain/loss, pain mgmt, used in psychiatry

70

AED's used in psychiatry:

Tegretol, Depakote, Lamictal

71

AED's that can trigger allergic rxns:

Tegretol, Dilanton, phenobarbital

72

What AED interferes with Vit D metabolism?

Tegretol

73

What diet helps prevent seizures?

fatty/ketogenic, modified Atkins diet (Johns Hopkins), low glycemic index diet (Mass. General)

74

What seizure pts will respond well to a high fat diet?

Those w glucose transporter mutation, do genetic test for this

75

When is surgery useful in seizure mgmt?

"focal cortical dysplasia", remove seizure focus abnormal structure in restricted region of cortex, cut corpus callosum, prevents spreading, young kids w severe cases, remove an entire hemisphere

76

VNS stands for:

Vagal neve stimulator

77

What does a VNS do?

electrical stimulation to brain via CN X by an external magnet, mechanism not understood

78

T or F? Protective reflexes are still functional during a seizure.

F.

79

Seizure disorders often accompany:

DD's, CP, DS

80

What should you ask a pt known to have seizures?

typical duration? triggers?

81

Dental side effect of Dilatin:

gingival overgrowth that requires surgery

82

How are some people with autism treated for dental care?

sedation or general anesthesia in hospital