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Flashcards in Section 7: Exam Study Deck (71):
1

What receptor can turn on the CFTR channel?

M3

2

What nucleus does the psyche stimulate that leads to a high volume of salivary secretion?

salivary nucleus in the medulla

3

What neurotransmitter acts on what receptors when the SNS is activated?

norepinephrine to alpha or beta receptors

4

Immunological injury to what (in Sjorgen Syndrome) reduces secretion?

acini

5

Main components of gastric juices:

water and H+

6

True or False? Pepsinogen is essential for protein digestion.

F. proteases from pancreas digest protein

7

Vitamin B12 deficiency leads to:

pernicious anemia

8

True or False? We can live without a stomach.

T. as long as we can get intrinsic factor

9

Secreted volume of acid per day:

2-3L

10

True or False? Acid is essential to our digestion.

F. Not essential and less important because food is less dirty

11

3 stimuli of oxyntic cells:

gastrin, acetylcholine, histamine

12

In which portion of the stomach are G cells found?

antrum

13

2 names for the cells that release pepsinogen:

peptic and chief cells

14

What do surface cells produce all the time?

NaCl/NaHCO3 and water

15

True or False? Gastrin is released into the blood stream

T

16

What and how much can parietal/ oxyntic cells produce when stimulated?

3ml/min of isotonic HCl, KC, and IF

17

True or False? Gastrin is released via the exocrine system.

F. Endocrine

18

Mucus goes out through:

gastric pits

19

Gastric juice composition with stimulation:

As rate increases, H+ concentration increases dramatically, Cl- increases, Na drops, and K doesn’t change much.

20

Origin of basal secretions:

surface cells; NaCl, NaHCO3, KCl, isotonic H2O

21

Origin of stimulated secretion:

partietal cells; HCL, NaCl, KCl, isotonic H2O

22

What is at the center of the mechanism for H+ secretion?

HK-ATPase, splits water, pumps H+ out against gradient while moving K into the cell

23

Is the blood bathing the stomach acidic or alkalinic?

alkalinic

24

When to take atropine:

for ulcer, blocks all muscarinic receptors

25

What does atropine block?

all muscarinic receptors, decreases acid secretion, not 100% block

26

True or False? Cimetidine stops secretion completely.

F. reduces

27

This is the only drug that 100% blocks the pump so there is no H+ secretion.

Omeprazole

28

Gastrin, acetylcholine, and histamine exhibit:

potentiation, secretory respons fo 2 is greater than the individual responses summed

29

True or False? The 3 phases of acid secretion cannot happen concurrently.

F. can happen all at once

30

Cephalic phase of acid secretion is via:

the vagus, extrinsic nerve, leads to acetylcholine release

31

Is there (direct, indirect, or both) secretion of H+ in cephalic phase?

both

32

Food inhibits this so that G cells will be stimulated, thereby secreting H+.

somatostatin

33

a pH under __ will inhibit gastrin release.

3

34

What stops the release of gastrin?

increase in pH due to food entering stomach

35

True or False? The vaso-vagal reflex leads to decreased G-cells and parietal cell secretion.

F. increased

36

This neurotransmitter is involved in the local response:

acetylcholine, stimulate G cells or parietal cells to secrete

37

Substances that stimulate parietal cells or G cells in the lumen of the intestines:

amino acids, proteins, caffeine, calcium, ethanol

38

Food in the stomach act on these cell types:

G cells and parietal cells

39

3 ways proteins can cause acid release:

g cells in the duodenum release gastrin that will signal increase acid secretion in stomach, protein stimulate endocrine cells, amino acids in the blood can circulate back and stimulate parietal cells

40

Stimulation of the vagus because of chewing, swallowing, smell, or taste can lead to the release of:

GRP or acetylcholine

41

Distention that triggers local reflexes uses this neurotransmitter:

acetylcholine

42

Both __ and __ G cells can lead to the release of gastrin.

gastric and intestinal

43

4 stimuli of parietal cells:

acetylcholine, gastrin, circulating amino acids, histamine

44

What does the decrease in pH of the stomach after all the food is gone stimulate?

somatostatin release which inhibits gastrin release

45

List 3 enterogastrones:

Secretin, CCK, and GIP

46

What effect do enterogastrones have?

inhibit parietal and G cells

47

True or False? GERD is life threatening.

T

48

How long does it take for food to go down the esophagus?

8 sec

49

Does pressure increase or decrease at the LES?

decrease

50

True or False? The esophageal peristaltic wave is due to spontaneous muscle activity.

F. Vagal nuclei in brainstem

51

What activates the second wave contraction in the esophagus?

stretch receptors in the esophagus activate a reflex stimulation via the vagus

52

LES opening and closing:

LES is normally closed. Before the pressure wave, the vagus signals the LES to relax and makes sure to send extra ACh after the opening to make sure it closes.

53

3 neurotransmitters of the myenteric and submucosal plexus:

Relaxation: VIP and NO, contraction: Acetylcholine

54

Neurotransmitters of the myenteric and submucosal plexus that are neurotransmitter sympathetic or parasympathetic:

purinergic

55

When are VIP/ NO released?

Inhibitory motor neurons are signaled by the vagus and have receptors for acetylcholine which then release VIP or NO

56

True or False? CCK causes contraction of the stomach.

F. relaxation, leading to food storage

57

True or False? If a meal is present in the stomach there is more calcium and more contractions.

T

58

How is slow wave electrical information being passed from cell to cell?

gap junctions

59

2 ways to control gastric peristalsis:

Vagal stimulaiton via acetylcholine OR gastrin

60

How does gastrin affect calcium?

raises levels in the smooth muscle cells

61

True or False? Vagal stimulation via acetylcholine and gastrin release can both occur just by thinking about food.

T

62

Fats inhibit gastric emptying via:

CCK

63

Acids inhibit gastric emptying via:

purinergic stimulation

64

How can vagal stimulation affect gastric emptying?

deviation from isotonicity lowers vagal stimulation and inhibits gastric emptying

65

What type of stimulation does H+ in the duodenum lead to?

purinergic stimulation leading to the relaxation of the sphincter

66

True or False? Osmoreceptors causing the vagus not to release as much acetylcholine is a purinergic response.

F

67

Fats in the duodenum cause the stomach to:

relax

68

True or False? Vomiting is activated by the stimulation of smooth muscle.

F. skeletal muscle

69

Where is the vomiting center?

at the pons-medulla junction

70

True or False? Control of vomiting is via both the CNs and the spinal cord.

T. proximal GI organs, diaphragm and abdominal muscles

71

What happens in the stomach during vomiting?

stomach doesn't contract much more and becomes looser, strong contraction of abdominal muscles propels the food