Section 6 Exam Review 2 Flashcards Preview

Physiology > Section 6 Exam Review 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Section 6 Exam Review 2 Deck (242):
1

Cortisol has permissive effects on:

glucagon

2

When does cortisol secretion peak?

between early morning and noon

3

Cross-over effects are sometimes seen between:

steroid hormones

4

True or False? All the hormones secreted by the adrenal gland play a major role in growth and metabolism.

F

5

Pendrin is an anion transporter important in the production of:

thyroid hormone

6

Name an effect of thyroid hormone on peripheral tissue:

increased sensitivity to sympathetic stimulation

7

Iodine accumulation in thyroid cells involves symport with:

sodium

8

Excess secretion of growth hormone during adulthood will cause:

acromegaly

9

Somatostatin is another name for:

growth hormone-inhibiting hormone

10

Mature, less active bones:

osteocytes

11

Functions of PTH:

stimulate osteoclast activity, increases the rate of calcium absorption, decreases the rate of calcium excretion, raises the level of calcium ion in the blood

12

Excess growth hormone prior to puberty:

giantism

13

Calcium reabsorption at the kidneys is promoted by the hormone:

calcitriol

14

Functions of cortisol:

suppress the immune system and influence brain function

15

What are ACTH and MSH called?

melanocortins

16

Effect of hyperthroidism on protein in body?

increases protein catabolism

17

What does growth hormone bind?

plasma protein

18

PTH is:

a peptide and dissolved in plasma

19

Vitamin D is another name for:

calcitriol

20

Vitamin D is formed by:

sunlight

21

True or False? Vitamin D is bound to plasma protein for transport.

T

22

What disease results in hypercortisolism?

Cushing's disease

23

What disease results in hyperthroidism?

Grave's disease

24

What disease involves endocrine stimulation by antibodies?

Grave's disease

25

Some symptoms of this disease mimic diabetes mellitus:

Cushing's disease

26

This disease is associated with overactive osteoclasts:

Paget's disease

27

Calcitonin may be the appropriate treatment for this disease:

Paget's disease

28

This may be an autoimmune disease:

Addison's disease

29

This disease may result from adrenal tumor:

Cushing's disease

30

This disease may result from a pituitary tumor:

Cushing's disease

31

This is associated with Grave's disease:

exophthalmus (abnormal protrusion of the eyeballs)

32

This can be caused by growth hormone deficiency in childhood:

dwarfism

33

This is caused by growth hormone excess in adulthood:

acromegaly

34

This can lead to mental retardation associated with infantile hypothyroidism:

cretinism

35

This condition results from excess androgens in females:

adrenogenital syndrome

36

Hunchback appearance associated with osteoporosis:

kyphosis

37

Puffy appearance associated with hypothyroidism:

myxedema

38

Easily observable symptom of hypercortisolism:

moon face

39

Caused by elevation of TSH:

Goiter

40

The most importance metabolic effect of ___ is protecting against ___, crucial to surviving significant stress.

cortisol, hypoglycemia

41

What produce and store thyroid hormone?

thyroid follicles

42

____ is a result folicular deficient thyroid hormone secretion in infancy.

cretinism

43

What does calcium phosphate form in bone?

crystals of hydroxyapetite

44

Into what system is CRH released?

hypothalamic-hypophyseal portal system

45

Breakdown products of POMC:

ACTH, MSH and endorphins

46

Growth hormone stimulates secretion of what from the liver and other tissues?

insulin-like growth factor

47

True or False? Growth hormone has a positive feedback effect on growth hormone secretion.

F. negative

48

4 factors that affect normal body growth:

growth hormone and other hormones, adequate diet, absence of stress, genetic

49

4 physiological functions of calcium:

signalling molecule, helps hold cells together at tight junction, cofactor in coagulation cascade, excitability of neurons

50

2 endocrine cell types that make up the thyroid gland:

c cells and follicle cells

51

C cells secrete ___, while follicle cells secrete ___-.

calcitonin, thyroid hormones

52

What would damage to the zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex result in?

decreased ability to convert lipids to glucose

53

A rise in cortisol would lead to:

Inc liver glucose and glycogen synthesis, higher fatty acids levels in blood, immune suppression

54

Premature closure of the epiphyseal plates could be caused by:

elevated levels of sex hormones

55

What effect will late start to puberty have on a boy?

probably be taller than if started sooner

56

Example of the permissive effect:

cortisol is required for glucagon to have its full effects, can't adequately perform its role in glucose regulation and death results

57

How does cortisol suppress the immune system?

it prevents cytokine release and antibody production by WBC's and decreases WBC mobility and migration (antibiotics-inflammatory and antibiotics-rejection drug for transplants)

58

True or False? Cortisol strengthens the skeleton.

F. weakens

59

How is the adrenal cortex affected during cortisol therapy?

it atrophies

60

Difference between hypertrophy and hyperplasia:

increase in cells size vs. increase in cell number

61

Hypertrophy and hyperplasia are both regulated by:

growth hormone, thyroid hormone, and insulin

62

3 causes of hypercoticolism:

adrenal tumor (primary), pituitary tumor (secondary), and iatrogenic

63

How does cortisol help protect against hypoglycemia?

via its catabolic effects

64

effects of cortisol:

gluconeogenesis, muscle protein breakdown, increased lipolysis, immune suppression, negative calcium balance, alteration of cerebral functions, and bone loss

65

Give an example of the permissive effect in children.

thyroid hormone is needed for full expression of growth hormone

66

List the trophic hormones:

FLAT

67

True or False? Endocrine cells are found in the posterior pituitary gland.

F. Anterior

68

Are the trophic producing cells part of the anterior or posterior pituitary gland?

anterior

69

Which releasing hormones have effects on more than one target?

TRH (TSH and prolactin) and GnRH (FSH and LH)

70

The renal actions of ADH are mediated by these receptors:

V(2) receptors, increase cAMP

71

How does ADH effect urea levels in the kidney?

increase urea reabsorption

72

Vascular effect of ADH are mediated by this receptor:

V(1) receptor (PIP(2) system)

73

How does ADH affect capillary and venue pressures?

decreases both

74

The osmoreptors in the kidney have ___ connections to the ________ nucleus.

neural, suproptic

75

Where are the stretch receptors located that sense high pressure?

carotid sinus and aortic arch

76

Where are the receptors located that sense low pressure?

cardiopulmonary, atria and thoracic veins

77

Which is sensed earlier, changes in plasma volume or osmolarity?

osmolarity

78

Lack of ADH leads to this disease:

diabetes insipidus

79

Excess ADH leads to this disease:

SIADH: Syndrome of Inappropriate ADH secretion

80

ACTH is aka:

endorphins

81

What is reticular activating substance involved in?

slep/wake cycle

82

What is the thalamus involved in?

pain

83

Functions of ACTH on the adrenal gland:

stimulate growth and function of gland

84

What hormone has inhibitory action on Tyrotropin?

Somatostatin

85

Which is involved in estrogen and progesterone synthesis, LH or FSH?

LH

86

Which is involved in follicular ovulation, LH or FSH?

LH

87

Which is involved in follicular growth, LH or FSH?

FSH

88

Effect of growth hormone on progesterone levels:

increases

89

Effect of progesterone on somatotrophs:

decreases the size and number of

90

Effect of progesterone on mammotrophs:

increases the size and number of

91

Prolactin inhibiting factor is aka:

GAP: GnRH Associated Peptide

92

True or False? Prolactin is involved in the up regulation of menstrual functions.

F. suppressed menstrual functions

93

The positive feedback loop involving oxytocin is continued as a result of

cervical stretch when baby pushes against cervix as a result of uterine contractions

94

How is ADH controlled?

osmoreceptors and volumes/ pressure receptors

95

Thyroxine is involved in the growth and development of what body systems/

CNS and skeletal system

96

True or False? Thyroxine is involved in temperature regulation.

T

97

True or False? Both Grave's disease and Hashimoto's disease are autoimmune diseases.

T

98

Are thyrotrophs found in the anterior or posterior pituitary gland/

anterior

99

What does T4 and T3 negatively feedback to in the thyroid axis control?

Thyrotroph

100

7 steps in the biosynthesis of thyroid hormones:

transport, Peroxidation (TPO), iodination (TPO), coupling, (TPO), reabsorption, proteolysis, secretion

101

How many steps in the biodynthsis of thyroid hormones is TPO involved in?

3; peroxidation, iodination, coupling

102

Functions of thyroid hormones:

transport, growth, metabolism, sympathetic nervous system, temperature regulation

103

How do thyroid hormones function in transported[orthodontic?

TBG (thyroxine binding gobulin) and Albumin

104

These can lead to the enlargement of the thyroid gland:

thyroid stimulating immunoglobulins

105

True or False? T3 and T4 have a strong negative feedback to the hypothalamus in hypothyroidism.

F. Strong negative feedback to hypothalamus in Grave's disease

106

Pendrin:

transports iodine into colloid

107

Does iodine get oxidized or reduced in the colloid?

oxidized, i- to i zero

108

Are a or b cells at the center of the islet?

beta

109

Insulin secretion:

plasma glucose increases, transported in via GLUT2 channels, oxidized to ATP, ATP closes K+ channel, cell depolarizes, voltage-sensitive calcium channel opens, calcium triggers the release of insulin

110

Pathway in which PKA increases the secretion of insulin:

adenylate cyclase/ glucagon receptor, ATP, to cAMP, to PKA

111

What type of adrenergic receptor is in the beta cell?

alpha-2-adrenergic receptor

112

What enzyme is used to make ADP + P from ATP in the beta cells?

Glucokinase

113

All weak androgens and glucocorticoids are synthesized from either:

pregnenolone or progesterone

114

The formation of mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, and weak androgens all start with the conversion of cholesterol to ___, via this enzyme:

pregnenolone, CSCC

115

Name 2 weak androgens:

DHEA and androstenedione

116

Aldosynthase converts what to what?

corticosterone to aldosterone

117

Which hormone is involved in long-loop negative feedback?

cortisol, on CRH and ACTH

118

2 factors that alter CRH release:

circadian rhythm and stress

119

True or False? Cortisol leads to protein anabolism.

F. catabolism (immune system suppression, gluconeogenesis, and lipolysis as well)

120

Extrahepatitc actions of glucocorticoids:

Break down protein from muscle and break down fat

121

Hepatic actions of glucocorticoids:

Synthesize glucose and glycogen

122

True or False? Glucocorticoids decreases sensitivity to insulin.

T

123

True or False? Glucocorticoids lead to an increase in liver glycogen storage.

T

124

How do glucocorticoids increase gluconeogenesis in the liver?

increase activity and amount of enzymes

125

True or False? Glucocorticoids lead to an increase in glucose sensitivity in adipose tissue.

F. decrease

126

True or False? epinephrine/ norepinephrine increase glycogenolysis and lipolysis.

T

127

Do epinephrine and norepinephrine both inhibit insulin release?

yes

128

What is the rate limiting step in the formation of pregnenelone?

cholesterol side chain cleavage (CSCC)

129

Main component of zona fasciculata and zona reticulata

cortisol, then corticosterone

130

Which group controls secretion, the renin-angiotensin system "RAS"?

mineralocorticoids

131

True or False? Aldosterone is involved in K+ excretion.

T, Na channel on luminal side, na/K ATPase on basal

132

What type of feedback control is there in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis?

negative feedback

133

What hormone is involved in tissue integrity?

cortisol

134

Effect of cortisol on CNS:

decrease sensory acuity and promote sense of well being

135

Effect of cortisol on cardiovascular system:

decrease vascular permeability, helps maintain catecholamine effect on vasoconstriction and contractility

136

Effect of cortisol on kidney:

to concentrate urine

137

Effect of cortisol on GI tract:

increase acid secretion, inhibit calcium reabsorption

138

Effect of cortisol on bone:

increase resorption

139

Effect of excess cortisol on connective tissue:

decreases collagen synthesis

140

Excess glucocorticoids:

obesity, "moon face" (pie face), loss of bone mass, striations, muscle weakness

141

What causes Addison's disease?

lack of both glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids

142

Symptoms of Addison's disease:

life threatening, loss appetite, malaise, lethargy

143

What is the adrenal medulla innervated by?

splanchnic nerves

144

Embryologic origin of the medulla:

neuroectodermal

145

Function of B-receptors:

increase cAMP (epinephrine>norepinephrine)

146

metabolic effects of B-receptors:

glycogenolysis, lipolysis, release of glucagon, calorigenisis

147

Cardiovascular effects of B-receptors:

increase heart rate and contractility, vascular dilation, u relaxation

148

alpha-receptors functions:

alpha-1: PIP(2) turnover, alpha-2: decrease cAMP epinephrine and norepinephrine bind equally well

149

metabolic effects of alpha-receptors:

decreased insulin secretion, increased glucagon and glucose release

150

Cardiovascular effects of alpha-receptors:

vasoconstriction

151

What is pheochromocytoma?

Causes excess secretion of epinephrine and norepinephrine, leads to: hypertension, palpitations, late skin, headache, and anxiety

152

What negatively feeds back to the anterior pituitary gland in the growth and development pathway?

insulin-like growth factors

153

This food substrate up regulates the release of growth hormone while this one down regulates the release.

protein, carbohydrates

154

True or False? Growth hormone up regulates lypogenesis.

F. lipolysis

155

4 hormones related to growth:

thyroid hormones, glucocorticoids, androgens, and estrogens

156

Causes of retarded growth:

nutritional, excess cortisol, thyroxin deficient, precocious puberty, growth hormone responsive dwarfism, or growth hormone insensitive dwarfism

157

What type of growth are IGF's involved in?

whole body growth

158

IGF-1 is aka:

Somatomedin-C

159

Function of IGF-1:

stimulate differentiation and proliferation

160

True or False? Thyroid hormones are involved in both neural and skeletal development.

T

161

True or False? Glucocorticoids are involved in growth, but not growth inhibition.

F. Vice versa

162

How do glucocorticoids exert their effects on a target tissue?

via direct action

163

This hormone has synergistic actions with growth hormone at target tissue:

androgens

164

Adrogens stimulate:

release of growth hormone, epiphyseal plate maturation, and muscle growth

165

True or False? Estrogens promote somatic cell growth.

F. inhibit somatic cell growth

166

Effect of estrogen on somatomedin C levels:

decreases somatomedin C levels

167

Effect of estrogen on growth hormone secretion:

increases growth hormone secretions

168

Intracellular functions of Ca:

contraction, motility, secretion, nerve function, growth, and differentiation

169

Extracelluar functions of Ca:

cell adhesion, aggregation of platelets, membrane integrity, blood coagulation

170

Functions of PO4:

cytosolic and blood pH buffer, energy exchange, component of membranes and nucleic acids, activation/inactivation of enzymes by kinases/phosphatases

171

14% of the PO4 in the body is here:

sequestered in the intracellular fluid

172

Extracellular fluid levels of Ca2+ and PO4:

0.1% Ca2+ and 0.03% of PO4

173

How are Ca and P stored?

in mito as crystal: Ca(3)(PO4)2

174

Where is most calcium reabsorbed?

duodenum

175

Calcium reabsorption is mediated by:

CaBP

176

PO(4) is reabsorbed most here:

jejunum, linear with diet

177

Bulk reabsorpion of calcium occurs here and regulated reabsorption occurs here:

poximal tubule, distal tubule

178

What % of the filtered load of PO(4) is reabsorbed in the poximal tubule?

90%

179

Reabsorption of PO(4) in the poximal tubule is ___ dependent.

Na+

180

Where is PTH synthesized?

chief cells of parathyroid gland (84 amino acids)

181

Action of PTH on the kidney:

increases reabsorption of Ca2+ and decreases PO(4) reabsorption

182

Where does PTH help in the formation of Vitamin D?

kidney, promotes formation of 1,25(OH)2

183

C cells are aka:

parafollicular cells, 32 amino acids

184

Action of calcitonin on kidney:

increase excretion of both Ca and P

185

True or False? Calcitonin has potent pharmacological actions.

T

186

The reaction of this converting to this requires sunlight.

7-dehyrocholesterol to cholecalciferol (Vitamin D3)

187

__ occurs in the liver to make Vitamin D.

hydroxylation, not regulated, vitamin D3 levels reflect dietary intake

188

Describe the biological activity and half life of 25(OH)-Vitamin D3:

weak biological activity, long half life (15 days)

189

True or False? 25(OH)-Vitamin D3 is the active form of Vitamin D.

F. activated in the kidney to 1,25(OH)-Vitamin D3

190

High plasma levels of what will increase the formation of 24, 25(OH)- Vitamin D3?

PO(4) or 1,25(OH)2

191

Function of 1,25(OH)2-Vitamin D3:

increases calcium and PO(4) absorption in gut

192

Function of 1,25(OH)2-Vitamin D3 in gut is inhibited by:

glucocorticoids

193

Osteoblasts secrete:

collagen, alkalin phosphatase, and other proteins and amorphous CaPO(4) to form osteoid

194

What is osteoid:

cartilage-like material, calcium salts can precipitate

195

Osteoblasts arise from osteoprogenitor cells in:

marrow, periosteum, or periodontal ligament

196

There are inactive osteoblasts:

surface cells

197

What are surface cells connected to?

osteocytes via gap junctions

198

What do surface cells separate?

bone fluid from plasma

199

Where do osetocytes reside?

bone interior, in lacuna connected via cannuliculi

200

Osteocytes arise from:

encapsulated osteoblasts

201

True or False? Osteocytes destroy bone matrix.

F. They mobilize Ca and P from immature CaPO(4) crystals by osteolysis without destruction

202

From what cells do osteoclasts arise?

monocytes/ macrophages

203

True or False? Osteoclasts are mononucleated.

F. multinucleated

204

How do osteoclasts resorb bone?

secretion of acid hydrolases, acidification of resorbing surfaces

205

How are osteoblast and osteoclast activity coupled?

various paracrine factors scubas PGE(2), secreted cytokines, and factors from osteoid degradation

206

True or False? Calcitonin and Vitamin D both lead to the absorption of Ca and P from the plasma.

F. Calcitonin does, vitamin d leads to release of Ca and P into the plasma

207

Where are PTH receptors found?

osteoblasts and osteocytes

208

What signals for the formation of new osteoclasts?

paracrine release of factors from osteoblasts.

209

How are osteoblasts activated?

release of factors (from degraded osteoid?)

210

Where are calcitonin receptors found?

osteoclasts

211

How does decreased activity of active osteoclasts affect osteoblasts via coupling?

decreases osteoblastic activity leading to decreased bone turnover

212

Are Vitamin D receptors found on osteoblasts, osteocytes, or osteoclasts?

osteoblasts and osteocytes

213

True or False? Vitamin D directly activates osteoclasts.

F. indirectly, like PTH

214

Actions of Vitamin D:

direct: permissive action, indirect: positive systemic Ca2+ and PO(4) balance

215

Do glucocorticoids decrease bone formation and degradation via direct or indirect actions?

both

216

What does prolonged exposure of glucocorticoids lead to?

osteoporosis

217

What sex steroids help maintain bone mass?

testosterone and estradiol

218

PTH acts to reabsorb Ca here and P here:

Distal tubule, poximal tubule (with Na)

219

Body locations on which PTH acts:

Kidney, bone, and intestines

220

Osteocytes around encapsulated ____.

osteoblasts

221

True or False? PTH and Vitamin D have receptors on the same cells types.

T

222

Aromatase is involved in the conversion of:

androgens to estrogens

223

True or False? PTH and Vitamin D have receptors on the same cells types.

T

224

All amino acid derived hormones are derived from:

tyrosine

225

Primary source of calcitonin:

thyroid

226

Primary source of melatonin:

pineal gland

227

Primary source of melatonin:

pineal gland

228

A hormone that controls the secretion of another hormone:

trophic hormone

229

Primary pathologies arise in the _____ endocrine gland in a reflex.

last

230

What is a secondary pathology?

a problem with one of the tissues producing trophic hormones

231

What type of hormone triggers an increase in the activity of G proteins in the membrane?

peptide hormones

232

What happens to a hormone after it exerts its effects?

inactivated or remove from blood

233

Difference between hormones and cytokines:

hormones are made in advance and stored

234

In a simple endocrine reflex, the endocrine cell is the:

sensor and the integrating center

235

Which produce a faster response, hormones acting through signal transduction pathways or those that produce genomic effects?

signal transduction pathways

236

2 ways hormones affect their target:

2nd messenger systems activated by peptide hormones modify existing proteins or activate gene transcription to make new proteins. Steroid hormones activate gene transcription to make new proteins and some steroid have nongenomic responses

237

Example of synergistic hormones:

epinephrine potentiates the effects folicular glucagon in elevating blood glucose levels

238

Example of permissive effect involving reproductive hormones:

reproductive hormones, along with adequate thyroid hormone have a permissive effect on the reproductive system birth control both are required for normal development

239

Example of antagonistic hormones:

glucagon and insulin

240

Benefit to portal system:

ensures direct delivery of hormone to target cell, hormone not diluted by passing through generation circulation, smaller amounts necessary

241

True or False? The hypophyseal portal system is the only endocrine portal systems.

T

242

The hormones from the posterior pituitary gland are secreted as:

neurohormones