Section 6 Adrenal Gland Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Section 6 Adrenal Gland Deck (109):
1

List the zone of the adrenal gland between the capsule and the adrenal medulla:

glomerulosa, fasciulata, and reticularis

2

in which layer of the adrenal gland are catecholamines produced?

adrenal medulla

3

in which layer of the adrenal gland are sex hormones produced?

Zona reticularis

4

in which layer of the adrenal gland are glucocorticoids produced?

Zona fasciculata

5

in which layer of the adrenal gland are aldosterone produced?

Zona glomerulosa

6

How many zones make up the adrenal cortex and name:

3; Zona glomerulosa, fasciulata, and reticularis

7

How is AI converted to AII?

by renin and ACE

8

The primary mineralocorticoid is:

aldosterone

9

What does AII stimulate?

aldosterone production

10

What secretes renin?

the JGA

11

Factors that increase renin secretion:

low pressure, low luminal sodium concentration, sympathetic nerve activity

12

What does high plasma K+ concentration stimulate?

aldosterone release

13

What structures do juxtaglomerular cells surround?

afferent and efferent arterioles and the macula densa of the distal tubule

14

Actions of aldosterone;

Na+ retention and K+ excretion

15

aldosterone + receptor affects on transcription and proteins synthesis:

new channels to add to luminal side of distal nephron, new pumps to add to interstitial fluid side facing blood supply, and proteins modulate existing channels and pumps

16

Net ion movement as a result of aldosterone:

K+ secreted into the lumen of distal nephron from the blood and Na secreted into the blood from the lumen

17

True or False? Aldosterone exerts its effects at the transcriptional level.

T

18

Cortisol can negatively-feedback to:

both ACTH (anterior pituitary gland) and CRH (hypothalamus)

19

what part of the adrenal gland is connected to mineralocorocoids, glucocorticoid, sex hormones (weak androgens)

cortex, endorcrine

20

True or False? The adrenal medulla releases epinephrine but not norepinephrine.

F. Releases both, some norepinephrine

21

What cells are neural derived cells?

chromafin cells, stain brown w/ chromium salts

22

Which part of the adrenal gland is like n extension of the chain ganglion?

the adrenal medulla

23

What types of tissue is most of the adrenal gland made of?

cortical tissue

24

List 2 catecholamines:

epinephrine and norepinephrine

25

Functions of outer zone of the adrenal cortex:

aldosterone, Na+ reabsorption, K+ loss

26

True or False? There is overlap between which layers produce which hormones.

T

27

Which zone makes up a larger part of the cortex?

zona fasiculata

28

What do the inner 2 zones release?

and sex hormones and glucocorticoids

29

Where are steroid stored?

They aren't. They are made on demands. Activate enzymes that tun on the biosynthetic pathway for steroid production

30

Why is it difficult to store steroids?

cholesterol derived, lipophilic

31

What is a bottle neck enzyme?

stimulates pathway that leads to production and release of a hormone (check)

32

The only (steroid) storage hormone:

thyroid hormones (not really a steroid but is like one because of its lipophilicity

33

How many carbons are in steroids

27 Carbons, 4 rings, tail

34

What controls the adrenal cortex

anterior pituitary corticotrophs, controlled by the hypothalamus

35

What gets converted to testosterone and estrogen?

androstenedione (weak androgens)

36

Critical bottleneck step

conversion of chesterol to an intermediate in pathway

37

1st and major step being regulated to drive the formation of the desired hormone:

Cholesterol side chain cleavages

38

What controls the formation of aldosterone from cholesterol?

pituitary hormones, angiotensin, and others

39

Critical regulator that stimulates the enzyme in the pathway from cholesterol to aldosterone:

angiotensin

40

This is a protein-gestational hormone:

progesterone

41

Intermediates in the pathway from cholesterol to aldosterone:

pregenolone, progesterone, 11-deoxycorticosterone, corticosterone

42

What converts corticosterone to aldosterone?

aldosterone synthase

43

True or False? There is no cross-reactivity of the steroid receptors for cortisol to bind to mineralocorticoids, or mineralocortocoids to glucocorticoids receptors, etc.

F. similarity in structure of all these receptors

44

What kind of activity does corticosterone have?

glucocorticoid activity, try to get rid of this in the final step to aldosterone

45

True or False? For the most part there is specificity of the receptors.

T

46

True or False? Cortisol can act like a mineralocorticioid.

T. If receptors are stimulated with high enough levels of cortisol.

47

Property of steroids:

alter gene transcription of proteins

48

True or False? Aldosynthase is found in the inner 2 zones.

F.

49

Where are weak androgens converted?

The periphery

50

What comes out of the anterior pituitary corticotrophs?

ACTH to go to the periphery, hypothalamus will release CRH through the portal circulation

51

What does ACTH activate?

Cortisol production: cholesterol side chain cleavage in inner zones of adrenal cortex, driving reactions through hydroxylation, dehydrogenases, etc.

52

DHEA supplementation:

overstimulation with lipophilic steroids take a while to get out,(longer half life) potential complications with steroid toxicity, doesn't work very well

53

enzyme controlling production of mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, and weak androgens:

CSCC

54

cortisol has cross-reactivity with:

mineralocorticoids

55

How much more cortisol is there in the blood stream than aldosterone?

10 more

56

Cortisol starts activating mineralocorticoids:

cortisol induced hypertension, increases Na reabsorption, increases blood pressure

57

What stimulates CSCC to make aldosterone?

angiotensin

58

What can stimulate the pathway to get to DHEA and the weak androgens?

LH

59

What enzyme does the kidney have that prevents cortisol induced hypertension?

11 beta hyroxyhydrogenase (11 beta HSD)

60

cortisol gets inactivated to:

cortisone

61

cortisone via ___ to cortisol.

reductase

62

Is cortisone active or inactive?

inactive

63

Why are we prescribed cortisone if it is inactive?

most tissues have reductase, the enzyme that convert it to cortisol

64

food that can cause hypertension:

licorice induced hypertension, pseudo mineralocorticoid hypertension

65

Molecular cause of licorice induced hypertension:

inhibition of 11-beta-HSD, inactivates kidney cortisol, no mineralocorticoid activity

66

Block inactivation of cortisol at the kidney:

lots of cortisol in the kidney left, acts like aldosterone, increase blood pressure

67

How do mineralocorticoids increase aldosterone production?

inc side chain cleavage induced by ang II and the only zone that has aldosterone synthase

68

Where is angiotensinongen synthesized?

liver

69

What kind of peptide is angiotensin I?

decapeptide

70

What kind of peptide is angiotensin II?

octapeptide

71

Ace inhibitors help people with:

renin induced hypertension

72

From where is renin secreted?

JGA

73

Under what conditions is renin released?

low blood pressure (arterial or JGA)

74

2 ways angiotensin increases blood pressure?

direct effect: vasoconstriction, indirect effect: aldosterone secretion from adrenal cortex

75

What sense low flow through the JGA

interrenin pressure receptors

76

how to increase blood pressure via cells:(rephrase)

depolarize cells in the adrenal cortex, K increase in plasma, aldosterone release, na reabsorption, loss of K+, start with high potassium, excrete more K+

77

What leads to the production of glucocorticoids?

cleavage of ACTH

78

5-20 interspersed cells in the JGA between smooth muscle and endothelial cells

renin secreting cells, sense pressure, symp nerves innervate that area as well to drive the change

79

Most of the binding protein of aldosterone is:

albumin

80

Are the Na channels on the apical or basal side of the distal tubule?

apical

81

True or False? Glucocorticoids affect every system in the body.

T

82

True or False? Glucocorticoids have a permissive affect.

T

83

Effect of glucocorticoids on immune functions:

depresses it, inflammatory cell, stimulates antibiotics-inflammatory cytokines

84

What axis are we talking about when discussing glucocorticoids?

Hypothalamis, anterior pituitary, adrenal cortex axis

85

True or False? Starvation is a major trigger for the release of glucocorticoids.

T. dietary, psychological, etc.

86

circadian rhythm in:

central hormones, especially cortisol

87

True or False? CRH can inhibition CRH.

T

88

What type of glucose are you making in starvation?

denovo glucose cortisol stimulates every gluconeogenic enzymes

89

amino acids for gluconeogenesis in starvation:

cortisol breaks down muscle, (greatest pool of proteins) to release amino acids to create glucose

90

What is the final thing to kill a starving person?

decrease muscle mass, decreasing intercostal muscle mass, die of suffocation, stomach full of fluid because of low oncotic pressure

91

What actions provide the substrates for gluconeogenesis?

extrahepatic actions

92

primary functions of cortisol:

increase gluconeogenesis in the liver and glycogen formation

93

Affect of cortisol on insulin:

decreases sensitivity of insulin

94

Action of insulin in periphery:

increases glucose uptake

95

Type I

destruction of beta cells in pancreas

96

Type II:

insulin resistant, not a receptor problem, signal transduction of insulin is messed up

97

How to increase glucose transport in people who are insulin resistant?

aerobic exercise, glucose uptake in peripheral skeletal muscle

98

Affect of glucocorticoids on brain

well being, mental acuity, pomc to ACTH, encephalins and endorphins being made

99

How does cortisol increase water retention?

via ADH system, affects GFR, and cardiac output as well

100

Cortisol in the GI system:

inhibits Ca uptake in the jejunum

101

What hormone can lead to the formation of both glucose and glycogen?

cortisol

102

What store of glucose is used by skeletal muscle in the starved state?

free fatty acids

103

True or False? Ganglionic transmission release hormones from the adrenal medulla.

T. essentially

104

What kind of response triggers hormone release from the adrenal medulla?

neuroendocrine response

105

norepinephrine

beta 1 stimulation ( heart, increase contractility), increase blood pressure (both systoles and diastole)

106

epinephrine:

peripheral vasod, some alpha, stronger B2, total drop in diastole pressure, mean pressure increases with epinephrine but not as much because diastolic isn't going up as much. Increases epinephrine dose, override B2 dilation in the peripheral, increases epinephrine, it will eventually look like norepinephrine (B1 and alpha)

107

Low does epinephrine:

B2 effect (?)

108

True or False? All catecholamines increases blood pressure and contractility in the periphery.

F. most. (check)

109

Anything that increases a lipolytic pathway with be stimulated by:

HSL (in what we talk about, not only way), cleaves free fatty acids off triglycerides