Flashcards in Section 3 Lecture 3 Deck (55):
Regions of the brain involved in the control of voluntary moves:
MC, BG, and cerebellum
Classes of voluntary movements:
Self initiated (BG) , stimulus-triggered (cerebellum, cortex), learned (cerebellum and cortex)
Issues in the MC can lead to:
m. tone abnormalities
Issue in the cerebellum can lead to:
Loss of coordination
What type of voluntary movement is the BG connected to?
Symptoms of lesion of the motor system:
paralysis (SC), involuntary movements(BG), absence/slowness of movement (BG), uncoordinated movement (cere), m. tone abnormalities (MC, BG)
Which cortical area is connected to movements of eyes?
2 located elsewhere (eye fields and supplemental eye fields (4,6,8,9)
What cortical area is connected to speech?
Weirnicke's area is involved in:
4 areas for movement of limbs and body:
1. area 4, primary motor cortex
2. Dorsal premotor cortex (area 6)
3. Ventral premotor (area 6)
4. Supplementary motor area (SMA; area 6)
Are all areas related to movements connected?
All areas related to movements receive input from where?
All areas related to movements contribute axons to what tract?
the corticospinal tract so they are all involved in the initiation of moves
Which one of the 4 areas of movement can participate in the initiation of moves?
giant pyramidal neurons in the fifth layer of the grey matter in the primary motor cortex:
Primary motor cortex is area:
Term used for dividing the brain based on strucure:
Main role of area 4:
control of hands and fingers
where seizure start, tx epilepsy by removing specific areas
From where does the brain get its pain innnervation?
no pain innervation
important to fxns
no m. contractions or sensory exp elicited from electrical stimulation
T or F? Area 4 is the only part of the motor system that is involved in motor skills.
Lesions to MC doesn't cause:
paralysis, involuntary movements (s.c.), or ataxic movements, inability toe generate independent finger movements (getting raisin out of hole)
Lesions of MC are typically a result of:
injury, not disease (except ALS)
After a lesion of the MC which will recover voluntary movements faster, the legs or hands and arms?
T or F? Lesion to the MC causes paralysis.
T or F? Lesion to the MC causes involuntary movements.
T or F? Lesion to the MC causes ataxic movements.
Disease leading to injury in the MC:
T or F? All wiring is completed by the age of 5.
F. There is a lot of plasticity in cortical organization past this age
Amputate 2 fingers:
the map reorganizes and deafferented regions receive input from neighboring body parts
Increased use of a muscle can lead to:
reorganization, important for PT
The (younger/older) you are, the more plasticity the cortex has (more reorganization possible)
What can lead to reorganizations or expansions of the cortical map?
Specific behavioral tasks
ventral and dorsal premotor cortex
Premotor (dorsal and ventral) cortex and supplementary area (these are 3 areas)
Ongoing sensory info:
Premotor (d and v)
involved in motor planning, organization of a sequence of commands (bimanual
tasks in which both hands are active but the movements in each are different)
rhythmic, repetitive movements
Overlearned, practiced movements
Inability to generate skilled moves:
SMA damage only:
cognitively intact, could not coordinate brushing of teeth. Understood task, but could not do it
Simple movements light up this portion of the brain:
Primary motor cortex, somatosensory cortex (sensory feedback required)
Complex movements light up this part of the brain:
activity in MC, Somatosensory cortex and SMA as well
Mental rehearsal of a complex movement lights up this part of the brain:
no movement, mental rehearsal of task only, don't do it, nothing in motor or SSC, but still activity in SMA
ALS stands for:
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis ("Lou Gehrig's Disease")
What results to ALS in the cellular level?
Loss of trophic factors to mm.
What sex is affected by ALS more and typical age of onset:
Onset of ALS: 40s-50s, more men
What is the prevalence of a disease related to?
The longer you live with a disorder, the higher the prevalence
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy
ALS does not affect:
cognition, sensory input, or affective
(Gradual loss of control, death by resp failure win 3-5yrs of diagnosis, Dr. assisted suicide)
What kind of disease is the variat of ALS that Stephen Hawking have:
Cause of ALS:
upper and lower MNs and their axons die (ie, pyramidal tract, aka corticospinal tract)
Ventral horn and s.c. axons also die