Section 3 Lecture 3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Section 3 Lecture 3 Deck (55):
1

Regions of the brain involved in the control of voluntary moves:

MC, BG, and cerebellum

2

Classes of voluntary movements:

Self initiated (BG) , stimulus-triggered (cerebellum, cortex), learned (cerebellum and cortex)

3

Issues in the MC can lead to:

m. tone abnormalities

4

Issue in the cerebellum can lead to:

Loss of coordination

5

What type of voluntary movement is the BG connected to?

Self-initiated

6

Symptoms of lesion of the motor system:

paralysis (SC), involuntary movements(BG), absence/slowness of movement (BG), uncoordinated movement (cere), m. tone abnormalities (MC, BG)

7

Which cortical area is connected to movements of eyes?

2 located elsewhere (eye fields and supplemental eye fields (4,6,8,9)

8

What cortical area is connected to speech?

1

9

Weirnicke's area is involved in:

Auditory-language

10

4 areas for movement of limbs and body:

1. area 4, primary motor cortex
2. Dorsal premotor cortex (area 6)
3. Ventral premotor (area 6)
4. Supplementary motor area (SMA; area 6)

11

Are all areas related to movements connected?

Yes

12

All areas related to movements receive input from where?

thalamus

13

All areas related to movements contribute axons to what tract?

the corticospinal tract so they are all involved in the initiation of moves

14

Which one of the 4 areas of movement can participate in the initiation of moves?

All 4

15

giant pyramidal neurons in the fifth layer of the grey matter in the primary motor cortex:

Betz cells

16

Primary motor cortex is area:

4

17

Term used for dividing the brain based on strucure:

Cytoarchitectonics

18

Main role of area 4:

control of hands and fingers

19

Seizure focus:

where seizure start, tx epilepsy by removing specific areas

20

From where does the brain get its pain innnervation?

no pain innervation

21

Eloquent cortex:

important to fxns

22

Silent cortex:

no m. contractions or sensory exp elicited from electrical stimulation

23

T or F? Area 4 is the only part of the motor system that is involved in motor skills.

F

24

Lesions to MC doesn't cause:

paralysis, involuntary movements (s.c.), or ataxic movements, inability toe generate independent finger movements (getting raisin out of hole)

25

Lesions of MC are typically a result of:

injury, not disease (except ALS)

26

After a lesion of the MC which will recover voluntary movements faster, the legs or hands and arms?

the legs

27

T or F? Lesion to the MC causes paralysis.

F.

28

T or F? Lesion to the MC causes involuntary movements.

F.

29

T or F? Lesion to the MC causes ataxic movements.

F.

30

Disease leading to injury in the MC:

ALS

31

T or F? All wiring is completed by the age of 5.

F. There is a lot of plasticity in cortical organization past this age

32

Amputate 2 fingers:

the map reorganizes and deafferented regions receive input from neighboring body parts

33

Increased use of a muscle can lead to:

reorganization, important for PT

34

The (younger/older) you are, the more plasticity the cortex has (more reorganization possible)

younger

35

What can lead to reorganizations or expansions of the cortical map?

Specific behavioral tasks

36

Area 6:

ventral and dorsal premotor cortex
Premotor (dorsal and ventral) cortex and supplementary area (these are 3 areas)

37

Ongoing sensory info:

Premotor (d and v)

38

Supp area:

involved in motor planning, organization of a sequence of commands (bimanual

39

coordination:

tasks in which both hands are active but the movements in each are different)

40

Pattern generator:

rhythmic, repetitive movements

41

SMA:

Overlearned, practiced movements

42

Inability to generate skilled moves:

apraxia

43

SMA damage only:

cognitively intact, could not coordinate brushing of teeth. Understood task, but could not do it

44

Simple movements light up this portion of the brain:

Primary motor cortex, somatosensory cortex (sensory feedback required)

45

Complex movements light up this part of the brain:

activity in MC, Somatosensory cortex and SMA as well

46

Mental rehearsal of a complex movement lights up this part of the brain:

no movement, mental rehearsal of task only, don't do it, nothing in motor or SSC, but still activity in SMA

47

ALS stands for:

amyotrophic lateral sclerosis ("Lou Gehrig's Disease")

48

What results to ALS in the cellular level?

Loss of trophic factors to mm.

49

What sex is affected by ALS more and typical age of onset:

Onset of ALS: 40s-50s, more men

50

What is the prevalence of a disease related to?

The longer you live with a disorder, the higher the prevalence

51

CTE:

Chronic traumatic encephalopathy

52

ALS does not affect:

cognition, sensory input, or affective
(Gradual loss of control, death by resp failure win 3-5yrs of diagnosis, Dr. assisted suicide)

53

What kind of disease is the variat of ALS that Stephen Hawking have:

MN disease

54

Cause of ALS:

upper and lower MNs and their axons die (ie, pyramidal tract, aka corticospinal tract)
Ventral horn and s.c. axons also die

55

Specific sets of cells affected:

UMN and LMN(?)