Flashcards in test #31 4.20 Deck (119)
posteroinferior wall of left ventricle supplied by.. infarct on ECG?
posterior descending branch of RCA.
ST elevations in leads II, III, aVF
transmural ischemia of interventricular septum on EKG?
ST elevation in leads V1 V2
transmural ischemia of anterior left ventricular wall on EKG?
ST elevation in V3 V4
occlusion of proximal LAD infarcts.. causes on EKG?
infarts anteroseptal transmural ischemia. ST elevations in V1-V4
anterolateral infarct of left ventricle on EKG?
LCX or LAD -- V4-V6
lateral wall of left ventricle infarct on EKG?
I, aVL & V5-V6
which segment of intestine is always involve w/ hirschsprung? why?
rectum, bc ganglion cells of submucosa & myenteric plexi travels caudally.
aganglionic segment -> constricted bc cannot relax
form of ventricular tachycardia.
polymorphic QRS complexes of varying amplitudes and cycle length.
give appearance that the tip of QRS is twisting around ECG baseline.
always associated w/ underlying prolonged QT
prolonged QT caused by..
class IA and III antiarrhythmics
lidocaine fxn by..
blocking Na+ channels
penicillins are structurally stimilar to
terminal d-ala-d-ala of peptidoglycan molecule
N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetylglucosamine are
peptidoglycan precursor molesules of cell wall in bacteria
sulfonamide antibiotic mechanism? trimethoprim
sulfonamides: compete w/ PABA (paraaminobenzoic acid) for incorporation into folic acid..
trimethoprim: block dihydrofolate reductase
staph epidermidis infxn?
major cause of infection in pts w/ indwelling catheters or implanted foreign bodies.
produces biofilm (polysaccharide slime) allows adhesion.
diagnosis: recover from mult cultures (can be contaminant)
rx: initial aggressive. vancomycin w/ rifampin or gentamycin or both.
can be resistant to methicillin
rx for staph epidermidis bactermia. if not..?
aggressive! vancomycin + rifampin + gentamycin
w/o rx: indolent endocarditis after valve replacement. intracardiac abscess formation, dehiscence of prosthetic valve, septic embolization
AML blasts will stain positive for
peroxidase (since Aur rods have MPO)
TdT in lymphocytes
terminal deoxynucleotidyl tranferase
add nucleotides to V D J regions of Ab gene for diversity.
mature of immature B and T cells
hairy cell leukemia stains. what type of cells are they?
TRAP (tartare resistant acid phosphatase)
splenomegaly, fatigue, pancytopenia
glomus body & glomus tumor
small, encapsulated neurovascular organ. temp regulation
in dermis of nail bed, pads of fingers & toes, ears
afferent arteriole --> richly innervated, muscular arteriovenous anastomosis --> efferent vein.
COLD: shunt blood AWAY from skin surface: prevent heat loss
HEAT: direct blood TO skin, facilitate dissipation of heat.
form PAINFUL tumors under fingernail. arises from modified smooth muscle cells.
skin presentation of histiocytosis
erythematous papules, nodules, and/or scaling plaques
electrolyte presentation of primary adrenal insufficiency (Na, K, Cl, HCO3)
primary adrenal insufficiency vs. secondary / tertiary (i.e. pituitary / hypothal)
primary -- loose aldosterone, cortisol, and androgens
secondary -- loose cortisol only. aldosterone triggered by renin / angiotensin system!
Na+ in hyperaldosterone?
initial increase, but aldosterone loss --> intravascular hypervolemia --> ANP --> diuresis & compensatory Na+ loss
why is supraspinatus injury most common of rotator cuff?
repeated impingement trauma between humeral head & acromion
subacromial bursa location
under both acromion/clavicle & tendon of deltoid muscle.
sits on top of supraspinatus
why no hep C vaccine // why prone to chronic infection
variety in antigenic structure of HCV envelope proteins
1. multiple genotypes & subgenotypes
2. hypervariable region of envelope glycoprotein -- prone to frequent mutation
3. no proofreading 3-5' exonuclease
constantly emerging mutant strains &much variety in a single person at one time
positive trendelenburg sign
hip dips to unaffected side when standing on affected sign (failure of gluteus medius/minimus to pull pelvis down and abduct thigh) --> superior gluteal n.
sciatic n. innervates all knee flexors except..
Wright-Giemsa stain on epithelial cells scraped from ulcer base.
see multinucleated giant cells w/ some intranuclear inclusions -- HSV & VZV