Flashcards in test #37 4.27 Deck (153)
where are B1 receptors located
cardiac tissue and renal juxtaglomerular cells
main effect of beta blockers on blood pressure?
reduced renin release from juxtaglomerular cells in kidney
three presentations of ascension of gonorrhea / chlamydia..
1. PID: purulent cervical discharge and cervical motion tenderness
2. salpingitis & tubo-ovarian abscess
3. peritoneal inflammation, including Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome -- from inflammation of hepatic capsule
associated w/ PID (gonorrhea / chlamydia ascension).
infection of liver capsule and "violin-string" adhesions of peritoneum to liver
two options for treating chlamydia
azithromycin or doxycycline
how long should people attempt to conceive before seeking medical intervention?
at least 1 year
when does advanced maternal age become a factor in ability to conceive
after 35 y/o
(aging of oocytes & decreased ovarian reserve of oocytes)
normal thickness of right ventricle? left?
definition of cor pulmonale
right ventricular hypertrophy caused by pulmonary HTN
(w/ or w/o congestive heart failure)
most common cause of pulmonary HTN
obliteration of segments of pulmonary vasculature by COPD
primary pulmonary HTN
young women, between 20-40y.o
mutation in BMPR2.
can no longer limit progressive proliferation of endothelial, smooth muscle, and intimal cells.
striking medial hypertrophy or arterioles and small arteries, as well as concentric laminar intimal fibrosis
what does the hemiazygous drain
blood from posterior walls of the thorax and abdomen
azygous + hemiazygous + accessory hemiazygous provide alternate path for blood to return to HEART, bypassing IVC
right gonadal vein & adrenal vein & renal vein drain? left?
right gonadal, renal, and adrenal drain directly into IVC
left gonadal and adrenal drain into RENAL VEIN, which passes between aorta & SMA into IVC
heteroplasmy refers to..
condition of having different organellar genomes within a single cell (mutated and wild-type)
mitochondrial encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, stroke-like symptoms
mitochondrial disease (heteroplasmy)
Leber hereditary optic neuropathy
mitochondrial disease (heteroplasmy)
myoclonic epilepsy, ragged red fibers (gomori trichrome stain)
Mccune-Albright syndrome inheritence
polyostotic fibrous dysplasia
unilateral cafe au lait spot
mosaicism: post-zygotic mutation in somatic cells in GNAS-1
when a patient has hypertension, hyperlipidemia, coronary artery bypass surgery, and carotid endartectomy history.. suggests he suffers from..
presentation of chronic mesenteric ischemia? due to? light microscopy
atherosclerotic narrowing of celiac trunk, SMA, and IMA
1. epigastric or periumbilical abdominal pain (30-60min after food intake)
-- atherosclerotic arteries not able to dilate in response to increased blood flow requirements during digestion/absorption of food.
2. weight loss: hurts so bad, avoid eating.
pain out of proportion to exam! physical exam will seem bland
light microscopy: hypoperfused areas show mucosal atrophy and loss of villi. atherosclerotic plaques.
[similar pathogenesis to angina pectoris]
epigastric pain 30-40min post meal. weight loss b/c hurts so much to eat. in hyperlipidemic person.
chronic mesenteric ischemia
bony matrix consists of..
1. inorganic: hydroxyapatite crystals
2. organic: type 1 collagen
osteogenesis imperfecta has an abnormality in which part of bone
supposed to give flexibility
complexity of eukaryotic genome due to..
presence of large number of non-coding DNA regions between coding regions (not just size)
glucokinase is located in..
pancreatic B cells and liver
glucokinase vs. hexokinase
glucokinase (pancreatic beta cell): higher Km, less sensitive to allosteric inhibition
[less affinity for glucose than hexokinase]
glucokinase deficiency in beta pancreatic cells
impaired glucose sensor in beta-pancreatic cells.
beta cells can't convert glucose -> ATP -> close K+ channels -> depol and release INSULIN
---> insulin deficiency --> diabetes!
inactivating mutations in glucokinase can be exacerbated in..
pregnancy! one cause of gestational diabetes
(MODY) maturity onset diabetes of the young
maturity onset diabetes of the young.
exacerbated by pregnancy
inactivating mutation in glucokinase.
poor glucose sensor in pancreatic beta cells, poor insulin release --> diabetes!