test #37 4.27 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in test #37 4.27 Deck (153)
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1

where are B1 receptors located

cardiac tissue and renal juxtaglomerular cells

2

main effect of beta blockers on blood pressure?

reduced renin release from juxtaglomerular cells in kidney

3

three presentations of ascension of gonorrhea / chlamydia..

1. PID: purulent cervical discharge and cervical motion tenderness

2. salpingitis & tubo-ovarian abscess

3. peritoneal inflammation, including Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome -- from inflammation of hepatic capsule

4

Fitz-Hugh-capsule

associated w/ PID (gonorrhea / chlamydia ascension).

infection of liver capsule and "violin-string" adhesions of peritoneum to liver

5

two options for treating chlamydia

azithromycin or doxycycline

6

how long should people attempt to conceive before seeking medical intervention?

at least 1 year

7

when does advanced maternal age become a factor in ability to conceive

after 35 y/o
(aging of oocytes & decreased ovarian reserve of oocytes)

8

normal thickness of right ventricle? left?

right: 3-4mm
left: 1cm

9

definition of cor pulmonale

right ventricular hypertrophy caused by pulmonary HTN

(w/ or w/o congestive heart failure)

10

most common cause of pulmonary HTN

obliteration of segments of pulmonary vasculature by COPD

11

primary pulmonary HTN

young women, between 20-40y.o

mutation in BMPR2.

can no longer limit progressive proliferation of endothelial, smooth muscle, and intimal cells.

striking medial hypertrophy or arterioles and small arteries, as well as concentric laminar intimal fibrosis

12

what does the hemiazygous drain

blood from posterior walls of the thorax and abdomen

azygous + hemiazygous + accessory hemiazygous provide alternate path for blood to return to HEART, bypassing IVC

13

right gonadal vein & adrenal vein & renal vein drain? left?

right gonadal, renal, and adrenal drain directly into IVC

left gonadal and adrenal drain into RENAL VEIN, which passes between aorta & SMA into IVC

14

heteroplasmy refers to..

condition of having different organellar genomes within a single cell (mutated and wild-type)

15

MELAS

mitochondrial encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, stroke-like symptoms

mitochondrial disease (heteroplasmy)

16

Leber hereditary optic neuropathy

mitochondrial disease (heteroplasmy)

17

MERRF

myoclonic epilepsy, ragged red fibers (gomori trichrome stain)

18

Mccune-Albright syndrome inheritence

precocious puberty
polyostotic fibrous dysplasia
unilateral cafe au lait spot

mosaicism: post-zygotic mutation in somatic cells in GNAS-1

19

when a patient has hypertension, hyperlipidemia, coronary artery bypass surgery, and carotid endartectomy history.. suggests he suffers from..

generalized atherosclerosis

20

presentation of chronic mesenteric ischemia? due to? light microscopy

atherosclerotic narrowing of celiac trunk, SMA, and IMA

1. epigastric or periumbilical abdominal pain (30-60min after food intake)
-- atherosclerotic arteries not able to dilate in response to increased blood flow requirements during digestion/absorption of food.

2. weight loss: hurts so bad, avoid eating.

pain out of proportion to exam! physical exam will seem bland

light microscopy: hypoperfused areas show mucosal atrophy and loss of villi. atherosclerotic plaques.

[similar pathogenesis to angina pectoris]

21

epigastric pain 30-40min post meal. weight loss b/c hurts so much to eat. in hyperlipidemic person.

chronic mesenteric ischemia

22

bony matrix consists of..

1. inorganic: hydroxyapatite crystals
2. organic: type 1 collagen

23

osteogenesis imperfecta has an abnormality in which part of bone

bony MATRIX
supposed to give flexibility

autosomal dominant

24

complexity of eukaryotic genome due to..

presence of large number of non-coding DNA regions between coding regions (not just size)

25

glucokinase is located in..

pancreatic B cells and liver

26

glucokinase vs. hexokinase

glucokinase (pancreatic beta cell): higher Km, less sensitive to allosteric inhibition
[less affinity for glucose than hexokinase]

27

glucokinase deficiency in beta pancreatic cells

impaired glucose sensor in beta-pancreatic cells.

beta cells can't convert glucose -> ATP -> close K+ channels -> depol and release INSULIN

---> insulin deficiency --> diabetes!

28

inactivating mutations in glucokinase can be exacerbated in..

pregnancy! one cause of gestational diabetes

(MODY) maturity onset diabetes of the young

29

MODY

maturity onset diabetes of the young.

exacerbated by pregnancy

inactivating mutation in glucokinase.

poor glucose sensor in pancreatic beta cells, poor insulin release --> diabetes!

30

all cutaneous lymph from umbillicus to feet (including external genitalia & anus up to dentate line) drain to..

superficial inguinal nodes

(NOT testes, glans penis, and cutaneous portion of posterior calf)