Flashcards in test #41 4.30 Deck (127)
immunoglobulins made by Salk polio vaccine?
killed -- only IgG
injected intramuscularly, unable to stimulate mucosal secretory IgA
immunoglobulins made by Sabin polio vaccine?
live -- both IgG and IgA on (mucosal surfaces)
will colonize natural site of viral entry, producing a greater & more prolonged immune response there.
difference between Salk & Sabin's polio vaccine
Salk - killed. less effective in generating prolonged oropharyngeal & intestinal IgA
Sabin - live, will be able to colonize mucosal surface and secrete IgA
two primary sites of poliovirus replication
oropharynx & intestine
common sites of psoriasis
elbow, knees, gluteal cleft, lumbosacral area, glans penis, scalp
nail changes associated w/ psoriasis
yellow-brown discoloration w/ pitting, thickening, or crumbling
type of arthritis w/ psoriasis
often deforming, upper extremity, small joint
dactylitis (sausage fingers), pencil-in-cup defomity on x-ray
HLA subtype associated w/ psoriasis
HLAB27 too bc of psoriatic arthritis
who makes angiotensin converting enzyme?
pulmonary vascular endothelial cells
three direct effects of antgiotensin II
1. sodium retention (direct)
2. aldosterone production
negative predictive value.
"what's the probability that negative test results truly mean absence of disease"
of the people who tested negative, how many don't have the disease
relationship of NPV and prevalence
NPV decreases as prevalence increases
Gardos channel blockers for Sickle-cell anemia
Ca2+ dependent K+ channel blockers, reduces K+ & H2O efflux from erythrocytes
prevents dehydration & sickling in Sickle-cell anemia
which substances increase gastric acid production from parietal cells? block
increase: histamine, Ach, gastrin
predominant source of TGF-alpha
TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, IL-6
what can severely impair cardiac output in patients w/ aortic stenosis
sudden drop in preload w/ loss of atrial contraction (i.e. atrial fibrillation)
bc left heart needs to generate lots of pressure to get blood out in aortic stenosis, now relies on atrial contraction for maximal preload (max LV filling)
in which pts is atrial contraction importrant
patients w/ poorly compliant left ventricles. needed to maintain adequate LV filling.
definition of preload
end-diastolic volume in ventricle
definition of afterload
where does CN I olfactory bundles enter skull?
what goes through optic canal
1. CN II
2. central retinal vein
3. opthalmic artery
what goes through superior orbital fissure?
1. CN III
2. CN IV
3. CN VII
4. CN V1
5. opthalmic vein
6. sympathetic fibers
middle meningeal artery & vein
internal acoustic meatus
spinal root of CN XI