test #41 4.30 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in test #41 4.30 Deck (127)
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1

immunoglobulins made by Salk polio vaccine?

killed -- only IgG

injected intramuscularly, unable to stimulate mucosal secretory IgA

2

immunoglobulins made by Sabin polio vaccine?

live -- both IgG and IgA on (mucosal surfaces)

will colonize natural site of viral entry, producing a greater & more prolonged immune response there.

3

difference between Salk & Sabin's polio vaccine

Salk - killed. less effective in generating prolonged oropharyngeal & intestinal IgA
(not serum)

Sabin - live, will be able to colonize mucosal surface and secrete IgA

4

two primary sites of poliovirus replication

oropharynx & intestine

5

common sites of psoriasis

elbow, knees, gluteal cleft, lumbosacral area, glans penis, scalp

6

nail changes associated w/ psoriasis

yellow-brown discoloration w/ pitting, thickening, or crumbling

7

type of arthritis w/ psoriasis

often deforming, upper extremity, small joint

dactylitis (sausage fingers), pencil-in-cup defomity on x-ray

8

HLA subtype associated w/ psoriasis

HLA C

HLAB27 too bc of psoriatic arthritis

9

who makes angiotensin converting enzyme?

pulmonary vascular endothelial cells

10

three direct effects of antgiotensin II

1. sodium retention (direct)
2. aldosterone production
3. vasconstriction

11

negative predictive value.
"what's the probability that negative test results truly mean absence of disease"

of the people who tested negative, how many don't have the disease

12

relationship of NPV and prevalence

NPV decreases as prevalence increases

13

Gardos channel blockers for Sickle-cell anemia

Ca2+ dependent K+ channel blockers, reduces K+ & H2O efflux from erythrocytes

prevents dehydration & sickling in Sickle-cell anemia

14

which substances increase gastric acid production from parietal cells? block

increase: histamine, Ach, gastrin

block: PGE2

15

predominant source of TGF-alpha

CARCIMONAS

also, mac

16

cachexia cytokines

TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, IL-6

17

what can severely impair cardiac output in patients w/ aortic stenosis

sudden drop in preload w/ loss of atrial contraction (i.e. atrial fibrillation)

bc left heart needs to generate lots of pressure to get blood out in aortic stenosis, now relies on atrial contraction for maximal preload (max LV filling)

18

in which pts is atrial contraction importrant

patients w/ poorly compliant left ventricles. needed to maintain adequate LV filling.

19

definition of preload

end-diastolic volume in ventricle

20

definition of afterload

arterial resistance

21

where does CN I olfactory bundles enter skull?

cribiform plate

22

what goes through optic canal

1. CN II
2. central retinal vein
3. opthalmic artery

23

what goes through superior orbital fissure?

1. CN III
2. CN IV
3. CN VII
4. CN V1
5. opthalmic vein
6. sympathetic fibers

24

foramen rotundum

CN V2

25

foramen ovale

CN V3

26

foramen spinosum

middle meningeal artery & vein

27

internal acoustic meatus

CN VII
CN VIII

28

jugular foramen

CN IX,
CNX,
CN XI,
jugular vein

29

foramen magnum

spinal root of CN XI
brain stem
vertebral artery

30

hypoglossal canal

CN XII