test #27 4.16 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in test #27 4.16 Deck (157)
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1

why does C. perfringens make gas necrosis?

rapid metabolism of muscle tissue carbohydrate --> gas

2

osmium tetroxide

fat = black

3

fat embolism syndrome

(1) respiratory distress
(2) nonfocal neurological disturbance
(3) chest lesions consistent w/ thrombocytopenia

4

describe path of fat emboli

dislodge from bone marrow, enter marrow vascular sinusoids,

- occlude pulmonary microvessels --> impair gas exchange
- occlude vasculature in CNS

5

describe promotion of parenchymal destruction w/ fat emboli (2)

1. platelet & mediators coat & adhere to emboli --> thrombocytopenia
2. systemic activation of LPL (lipoprotein lipase) releases oleic acid systemically --> toxic levels

6

wright stain

often hemotological stain. purple platelets

7

iron stain // hemosiderin

brown on H&E
dark blue on prussian blue

8

second trimester quad screen for down's syndrome:

increased: b-HCG, inhibin A.
decreased: AFP, estriol

9

first trimester findings in down's syndrome:

ultrasound:
increased nuchal translucency &
hypoplastic nasal bone.

serum:
increased b-HCG
decreased PAPP-A

10

edward's syndrome (trisomy 18) screening findings

everything is down.

1st trimester:
DOWN: PAPP-A and b-HCG

quad screen:
DOWN: AFP, b-HCG, estriol, inhibin-A (could be normal)

11

elevated b-HCG and inhibin in 2nd semester?

[low estriol and AFP]

down's syndrome

12

low bHCG, inhibin, estriol, and ADP

edward's syndrome

13

patau syndrome screening findings

first trimester:

DOWN: bHCG, PAPP-A

increased nuchal translucency

14

low b-HCG and PAPP-A w/ nuchal translucency? without nuchal translucency

nuchal translucency: patau

w/o nuchal translucency: edwards

15

vast majority of trisomy 21 occur due to..

nondisjunction in meiosis I
(failure of homologous chromosomes to separate)

16

nondisjunction in meiosis I due to? nondisjunction in meiosis II due to?

meiosis I: failure of homologous chromosomes to separate

meiosis II: failure of sister chromatids to separate

17

lagging strand is CONSTRUCTED in which direction? SYNTHESIZED in which direction?

constructed in 3'->5' direction.

synthesized in 5'->3' direction

18

elder abuse

FIRST: try to speak to patient alone -- to avoid intimidation.

ask:
1. do you feel safe at home
2. who prepares your meals
3. who handles your checkbook

REPORT only after information is collected

19

anovulatory cycles

common in early menarche years.

immature HPA-axis

longer menstrual cycles and irregular bleeding patterns due to presence of anovulatory cycles

no ovulation -> no corpus luteum -> no progesterone -> continuous estrogen

results in continued proliferation.

becomes disorganized, fragile, w/ unstable venous capillaries --> irregular periods of stromal breakdown w/ variable (spotting) & heavy bleeding.

20

three major causes of valvular aortic stenosis. most common world-wide? in USA?

(1) congenitally abnormal valve w/ calcification (i.e. biscuspid)

(2) calcified normal valve

(3) rheumatic heart disease

world-wide: rheumatic heart disease.
US: calcific aortic valve (either bicuspid/tricuspid)

21

right horn of sinus venosus

originally receives blood from IVC. l

becomes smooth part of right atrium.

(smooth part of left from primitive pulmonary vein)

22

bulbos cordis

forms beginning of ventricular outflow tract in embryonic heart. later --> smooth portion of left and right ventricles (adjacent to aorta and pulmonary artery, respectively)

23

primitive atrium

receives blood from sinus venosus in embryonic heart, transmits to primitive ventricle.

primitive atrium --> rough portions of left and right atria

24

close PDA? keep it open?

close: indomethacin.
keep open: PGE2

25

primitive pulmonary vein forms..

smooth part of left atrium

26

left horn of sinus venosus

coronary sinus

right horn --> smooth part of right atrium

27

right common cardinal vein & right anterior cardinal vein

SVC

28

what is the first functional organ in human embryo? when does it function?

fetal heart. begins to pump 4 wks in.

29

first heart loop establishes

left-to-right polarity.

30

patent foramen ovalue

failure of septum primum and septum secundum to fuse. usu left untreated.