Flashcards in test #27 4.16 Deck (157)
why does C. perfringens make gas necrosis?
rapid metabolism of muscle tissue carbohydrate --> gas
fat = black
fat embolism syndrome
(1) respiratory distress
(2) nonfocal neurological disturbance
(3) chest lesions consistent w/ thrombocytopenia
describe path of fat emboli
dislodge from bone marrow, enter marrow vascular sinusoids,
- occlude pulmonary microvessels --> impair gas exchange
- occlude vasculature in CNS
describe promotion of parenchymal destruction w/ fat emboli (2)
1. platelet & mediators coat & adhere to emboli --> thrombocytopenia
2. systemic activation of LPL (lipoprotein lipase) releases oleic acid systemically --> toxic levels
often hemotological stain. purple platelets
iron stain // hemosiderin
brown on H&E
dark blue on prussian blue
second trimester quad screen for down's syndrome:
increased: b-HCG, inhibin A.
decreased: AFP, estriol
first trimester findings in down's syndrome:
increased nuchal translucency &
hypoplastic nasal bone.
edward's syndrome (trisomy 18) screening findings
everything is down.
DOWN: PAPP-A and b-HCG
DOWN: AFP, b-HCG, estriol, inhibin-A (could be normal)
elevated b-HCG and inhibin in 2nd semester?
[low estriol and AFP]
low bHCG, inhibin, estriol, and ADP
patau syndrome screening findings
DOWN: bHCG, PAPP-A
increased nuchal translucency
low b-HCG and PAPP-A w/ nuchal translucency? without nuchal translucency
nuchal translucency: patau
w/o nuchal translucency: edwards
vast majority of trisomy 21 occur due to..
nondisjunction in meiosis I
(failure of homologous chromosomes to separate)
nondisjunction in meiosis I due to? nondisjunction in meiosis II due to?
meiosis I: failure of homologous chromosomes to separate
meiosis II: failure of sister chromatids to separate
lagging strand is CONSTRUCTED in which direction? SYNTHESIZED in which direction?
constructed in 3'->5' direction.
synthesized in 5'->3' direction
FIRST: try to speak to patient alone -- to avoid intimidation.
1. do you feel safe at home
2. who prepares your meals
3. who handles your checkbook
REPORT only after information is collected
common in early menarche years.
longer menstrual cycles and irregular bleeding patterns due to presence of anovulatory cycles
no ovulation -> no corpus luteum -> no progesterone -> continuous estrogen
results in continued proliferation.
becomes disorganized, fragile, w/ unstable venous capillaries --> irregular periods of stromal breakdown w/ variable (spotting) & heavy bleeding.
three major causes of valvular aortic stenosis. most common world-wide? in USA?
(1) congenitally abnormal valve w/ calcification (i.e. biscuspid)
(2) calcified normal valve
(3) rheumatic heart disease
world-wide: rheumatic heart disease.
US: calcific aortic valve (either bicuspid/tricuspid)
right horn of sinus venosus
originally receives blood from IVC. l
becomes smooth part of right atrium.
(smooth part of left from primitive pulmonary vein)
forms beginning of ventricular outflow tract in embryonic heart. later --> smooth portion of left and right ventricles (adjacent to aorta and pulmonary artery, respectively)
receives blood from sinus venosus in embryonic heart, transmits to primitive ventricle.
primitive atrium --> rough portions of left and right atria
close PDA? keep it open?
keep open: PGE2
primitive pulmonary vein forms..
smooth part of left atrium
left horn of sinus venosus
right horn --> smooth part of right atrium
right common cardinal vein & right anterior cardinal vein
what is the first functional organ in human embryo? when does it function?
fetal heart. begins to pump 4 wks in.
first heart loop establishes