Flashcards in test #46 5.6 Deck (121)
vertical transmission of hepatitis occurs via..
passage through birth canal, or transplacental infxn
increased risk of vertical transmission marked by..
HBeAg (marks viral replication & infectivity)
rx for all newborns of all mothers w/ active hepatitis B?
-passively via HBIG (hep B Ig)
-active immunization w/ recombinant HBV vaccine
window period of hep B detected w/
histology of macula (3)
densely packed cone, few overlying cells, no blood vessels
1 cone -> 1 bipolar cell -> 1 ganglion cell
all = greater visual acuity
visual defect surrounded by relatively unimpaired field of vision
causes of scotoma
pathology in retina / optic nerve
1. demyelinating disease (MS)
2. diabetic retinopathy
3. retinitis pigmentosa
4. macular degeneration = CENTRAL scotoma
dry vs wet macular degeneration
dry: deposition of fatty tissue (drusen) behind retina
wet: neovascularization of retina
due to damage to a particular region of optic nerve head
resulting defect follows arcuate shape of nerve fiber pattern
deep intramuscular injections to the buttock should be
superomedial injection to the buttock can..
injure superior gluteal n.
path of superior gluteal n.
leaves pelvis via greater sciatic foramen above level of piriformis
inferomedial quadrant to the buttock injection can..
injure sciatic n.
malignant neoplasm arising from ovarian surface epithelium
produce mucin --> pseudomyxoma peritonei
associated w/ mucinous cystadenocarcinoma & appendiceal tumor
peritoneal cavity fills w/ mucin due to widespread intraperitoneal metastases
demographic for dysgerminoma in females
benign cystic teratoma in females
most common germ cell tumors in females
benign cystic teratoma
dermoid cysts / cystic teratoma in ovary -- can secrete excessive thyroid hormone
ovarian tumor & hyperthyroidism
struma ovari --> dermoid cysts // benign cystic teratoma of ovaries
presentation of granulosa cell tumor
secrete estrogen -->
young: precocious puberty
older: abnormal endometrial bleeding, endometrial carcinoma
alpha 1-antitrypsin on diffusing capacity
decreased diffusing capacity bc destruction of alveoli and adjoining capillary beds
shed epithelium forming mucus plug in asthma
breakdown of eosinophils in sputum
asthma characterized by what:
FEV/FVC, TLV, DC
increased DC (increased pulmonary blood volume)
suggests foot process effacesment
loss of ALBUMIN mostly
(less bulky proteins like IgG and macroglobulin)
components of glomeruliar filtration barrier (3)
1. fenestrated endothelium
2. glomerular basement membrane
3. epithelial cell foot processes
size selectivity in glomerulus conferred by.. most selective?
dimension of pores
-endothelial cell fenestration (40nm)
-GBM pore (4nm)
- slit process between foot processes (also 4nm)
selective: GBM & slit diaphragm
charge selectivity in glomerulus conferred by?
by negatively charged anions (heparan sulfate & proteoglycans) on endothelial cells and GBM
--> repel albumin