test #46 5.6 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in test #46 5.6 Deck (121)
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1

vertical transmission of hepatitis occurs via..

passage through birth canal, or transplacental infxn

2

increased risk of vertical transmission marked by..

HBeAg (marks viral replication & infectivity)

3

rx for all newborns of all mothers w/ active hepatitis B?

-passively via HBIG (hep B Ig)
&
-active immunization w/ recombinant HBV vaccine

4

window period of hep B detected w/

HbcAb

5

histology of macula (3)

densely packed cone, few overlying cells, no blood vessels

1 cone -> 1 bipolar cell -> 1 ganglion cell

all = greater visual acuity

6

scotoma

visual defect surrounded by relatively unimpaired field of vision

7

causes of scotoma

pathology in retina / optic nerve

1. demyelinating disease (MS)
2. diabetic retinopathy
3. retinitis pigmentosa
4. macular degeneration = CENTRAL scotoma

8

dry vs wet macular degeneration

dry: deposition of fatty tissue (drusen) behind retina

wet: neovascularization of retina

9

arcuate scotoma

due to damage to a particular region of optic nerve head

resulting defect follows arcuate shape of nerve fiber pattern

10

deep intramuscular injections to the buttock should be

superlateral quadrant

11

superomedial injection to the buttock can..

injure superior gluteal n.

12

path of superior gluteal n.

L4-S1
leaves pelvis via greater sciatic foramen above level of piriformis

13

inferomedial quadrant to the buttock injection can..

injure sciatic n.

14

mucinous cystadenocarcinoma

malignant neoplasm arising from ovarian surface epithelium

produce mucin --> pseudomyxoma peritonei

15

pseudomyxoma peritonei

associated w/ mucinous cystadenocarcinoma & appendiceal tumor

peritoneal cavity fills w/ mucin due to widespread intraperitoneal metastases

16

demographic for dysgerminoma in females

YOUNGER, 10-30y/o

17

benign cystic teratoma in females

dermoid cysts

18

most common germ cell tumors in females

benign cystic teratoma
(dermoid cysts)

19

struma ovarii

dermoid cysts / cystic teratoma in ovary -- can secrete excessive thyroid hormone

20

ovarian tumor & hyperthyroidism

struma ovari --> dermoid cysts // benign cystic teratoma of ovaries

21

presentation of granulosa cell tumor

secrete estrogen -->
young: precocious puberty
older: abnormal endometrial bleeding, endometrial carcinoma

22

alpha 1-antitrypsin on diffusing capacity

decreased diffusing capacity bc destruction of alveoli and adjoining capillary beds

23

Curschmann spirals

shed epithelium forming mucus plug in asthma

24

Charcot-Leyden crystals

breakdown of eosinophils in sputum

25

asthma characterized by what:
FEV/FVC, TLV, DC

decreased FEV/FVC
increased TLV
increased DC (increased pulmonary blood volume)

26

selective proteinuria

suggests foot process effacesment

loss of ALBUMIN mostly

(less bulky proteins like IgG and macroglobulin)

27

components of glomeruliar filtration barrier (3)

1. fenestrated endothelium
2. glomerular basement membrane
3. epithelial cell foot processes

28

size selectivity in glomerulus conferred by.. most selective?

dimension of pores

-endothelial cell fenestration (40nm)
-GBM pore (4nm)
- slit process between foot processes (also 4nm)

selective: GBM & slit diaphragm

29

charge selectivity in glomerulus conferred by?

by negatively charged anions (heparan sulfate & proteoglycans) on endothelial cells and GBM

--> repel albumin

30

how is albumin lost into urine

small enough to fit through GBM pores. normally kept out via charge

in MCD: loose some neg charge in basement membrane