Flashcards in test #28 4.19 Deck (133)
examples of delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions
(1) contact dermatitis
(2) granulomatous inflammation
(3) tuberculin skin test
(4) candida extract skin reaction
delayed-type HSR mediated by..
T-lymphocytes (not Ab or complement).
reaction takes 1-2 days, bc antigen taken up by dendritic cells, present to CD4+ cells on MHC II.
Th1 cells secrete IFN-gamma, recruit & stimulate macrophages --> monocytic infiltrate.
[also occurs when 'walling off' TV
increased WBC post-corticosteroids
falsely elevated. due to demargination (release from vascular walls) of cells
2 disorders of mast cells
urticaria pigmentosum. systemic mastocytosis
what two factors drive angiogenesis
VEGF and FGF
-vascular ENDOTHELIAL growth factor
- fibroblast growth factor
VEGF: angiogenesis in variety of tissues: normal, chronically inflammed, healing, neoplastic. increases endothelial cell motility and proliferation --> new capillaries.
FGF-2: made by many cells. significantly involved in (1) promotion of endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation. also: impt in (2) embryogenesis (stimulating angioblast production)
[FGF: angiogenesis, embryonic develoment, hematopoiesis, wound repair]
synthesized by growth-hormone influenced hepatocytes. stimulate cell growth and multiplication.
barrier to angiogenesis
laminin in basement membranes
non-viral-dependent nucleotides analogues
cidofovir (activated by cellular kinase) & tenofovir
rx for thymidine kinase-deficient (acyclovir-resistant) varicella?
fosacarnet: (PYROPHOSPHATE analog viral DNA polymerase inhibitor)
cidofovir: broad spectrum NUCLEOTIDE. analogue of cytidine monophosphate (activated by CELLULAR kinase)
factitious disorder vs. malingering
both CONSCIOUSLY creates symptoms.
factitious: for 1' gain (sick role/medical attn)
malingering: for 2' gain (avoid work, compensation)
chronic factitious disorder
sudden neurological symptoms (loss of sensory/motor) with NO physical evidence.
somatic disorder vs. factitious & malingering
somatic disorder syndromes (i.e. conversion, hypochondriaisis, somatization) are UNCONSCIOUS
factitious & malingering: CONSCIOUS
somatization disorder (vs. conversion disorder)
somatoform disorder, several symptoms
usu begins <30 y/o. impact social/occupation.
with no physical exam / imaging evidence
(differs from conversion, which has specific NEURO and POST-STRESSOR)
preoccupation/fear of having serious illness despite medical evaluation & assurance.
often, mistinterpretation of normal bodily symptoms (gas = colon cancer). associated w/ Dr. shopping
body dysmorphic disorder
think body is pathologically flawed, when in fact, it is not.
chromosome 3p deletion
cerebellar hemangioblastomas, clear cell renal carcinoma, and pheochromocytoma.
RCC develops in 40% of patients.
cerebellar hemangioblastoma, clear cell renal carcinoma, pheochromocytoma
VHL (tumor supressor chr. 3)
location of RB
(osteosarcoma and retinoblastoma)
location of NF-1
location of chemoreceptor trigger zone (area postrema)
dorsal surface of medulla, caudal end of fourth ventricle.
integrin, cadherin, selectin, Ig superfamily members
laminins bind to
collagen, fibronectin, laminin in ECM
large glycoproteins produced by fibroblasts & some epithelial cells. binds to integrin, matrix collagen, glycosaminoglycans. mediations cell adhesion
proteoglycan component of ECM.
associated w/ reticular fibers and basal laminae. helps w/ endothelial cell attachment to BM.
does not bind to cell surface integrins.
glucuronic-acid containing glycosaminoglycan in ECM.
contributes to water retention in ECM -> lubricant properties. viscous, gel-like consistency.
core of elastin protein surrounded by fibrillin