usmle2: block 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in usmle2: block 2 Deck (42):
1

spleen immune fxn (2)

1. mononuclear phagocytes ingest unopsonized organisms (encapsulated organisms)

2. contains half of total body Ig-producing B cells. needed to opsonize bacteria

2

radiation to head/neck

think: thyroid neoplasm

3

familial associated of melanoma

CDKN2A

4

Kluver-Bucy syndrome? associated w/

temporal damage, esp amygdala

inappropriate sexual activity, oral fixation, hyperphagia, visual agnosia, aphasia, lacid, amnesia, distractable

associated w/ HSV-1 encephalitis

5

insula cortex

subjective emotional experience
pain
body representation
conscious cravings

active when drug abusers see cues that trigger craving

6

ventilation =

tidal volume x respiratory rate

7

pathophysiology of tardive dyskinesia (2)

1. upregulation of central dopamine receptors
2. decrease in cholinergic activity in striatum

8

how is epinephrine made?

NE -> dopamine
via Phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase
PMNT

9

COPD: increased PFT? decreased

increased TLC, RV, and FRC
decreased FEV1/FVC

10

contact inhibition (petri dish) mediated by what molecules

cadherins and catenins

loss = sign of malignancy

11

respiratory symptoms in superior vena cava syndrome due to..

laryngeal edema

often due to lung cancer/lymphoma

12

axially nerve injury caused by?

fracture of surgical neck of humerus

13

how do osteoclasts resorb bone

form howship lacunae and secrete acid (made by intracellular carbonic anhydrase)

note: osteoclasts: multinucleated, from monocytes

14

negri body in hippocampus

rabies infxn

15

renal plasma flow =

RBF x (1-Hct)

16

definition of orthostatic hypotension

decrease of 20mmHg systolic
or 10mmHg diastolic

more sensitive: HR increase w/ standing

17

acitretin

systemic therapy for psoriasis
retinoid
teratogenic

18

how do aminoglycosides get into cell

O2 dependent, energy-dependent

19

aminoglycoside resistance (3)

1. poor penetration
2. can't bind to 30s subunit
3. destruction by bacterial enzymes

20

only FDA approved drug for obesity?

orlistat

inhibit intestinal lipase, inhbiit fat absorption

21

fenfluramine

anoretic
increase 5-HT levels

little long term efficacy; pulmonary HTN and valvulopathy

22

rectal blood supply

1. superior rectal: IMA (portal)
2. middle rectal: internal iliac
3. inferior rectal: internal pudendal

similar for venous drainage

23

inferior epigastric vein drains to..

external iliac

24

azygous =

right lumbar + right subcostal above diaphragm

does not exist below diaphragm

25

where is glycogen stored

liver and muscle

26

2 fates of F6P

fasting: gluconeogenesis
fed: glycolysis

regulated by F2,6BP (high in fed, low in fasting)

27

what regulates formation of F2,6BP

1 enzyme, ultimately PKA

GLUCAGON increases cAMP, increases PKA,
-decreases F2,6BP (converts to F6P for gluconeogenesis)

INSULIN decreases cAMP, decreases PKA
-increases F2,6BP, stimulates PFK-1 for glycolysis

28

cavernous sinus receives drainage from..

1. cerebral veins
2. facial veins (via superior& inferior opthalmic vein)

29

what cranium sinus can be affected by facial (orbit, nose, paranasal sinus) infxn?

cavernous! bc also gets venous drainage from facial veins!

30

danazol

androgen used to suppress FSH and LH by pituitary

used in: endometriosis

31

parasite with ingested RBC

entamoeba histolytica

32

increased lumbar lordosos 'sway back' associated w/ excessive flexion of..

hip flexors

give pelvic an anterior tilt

or, weak hip extensors

33

GLP-1

glucagon-dependent insulin peptide
or
gastrin-inhibitory peptide (supraphysiological levels)

part of incretin effect, increase insulin release

released by K cells of intestine

34

CCK stimulates

pancreatic ENZYME secretion
bile production & GB contraction

protein, lipid sensitive

35

Secretin stimulates

pancreatic BICARB secretion
also gallbladder & dudenum BICARB secretion

acid sensitive

36

ACE inhibitors in pregnancy

NO! teratogen

37

ACE inhibitors on fetal kidney develop

angiotensin II needed for normal fetal renal development

renal atrophy, ultimately anuria --> potter sequence

38

apoB48

chylomicron -- secreted from intestinal cells

39

apoB100

VLDL -- secreted from hepatocytes

40

ApoE

recycle, back to liver

41

ApoC

activate lipoproteinlipase

42

apoA

activate LCAT (esterify cholesterol, less toxic)
on VLDL