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Flashcards in usmle2: block 2 Deck (42)
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1
Q
spleen immune fxn (2)
A
1. mononuclear phagocytes ingest unopsonized organisms (encapsulated organisms)

2. contains half of total body Ig-producing B cells. needed to opsonize bacteria
2
Q
radiation to head/neck
A
think: thyroid neoplasm
3
Q
familial associated of melanoma
A
CDKN2A
4
Q
Kluver-Bucy syndrome? associated w/
A
temporal damage, esp amygdala

inappropriate sexual activity, oral fixation, hyperphagia, visual agnosia, aphasia, lacid, amnesia, distractable

associated w/ HSV-1 encephalitis
5
Q
insula cortex
A
subjective emotional experience
pain
body representation
conscious cravings

active when drug abusers see cues that trigger craving
6
Q
ventilation =
A
tidal volume x respiratory rate
7
Q
pathophysiology of tardive dyskinesia (2)
A
1. upregulation of central dopamine receptors
2. decrease in cholinergic activity in striatum
8
Q
how is epinephrine made?
A
NE -> dopamine
via Phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase
PMNT
9
Q
COPD: increased PFT? decreased
A
increased TLC, RV, and FRC
decreased FEV1/FVC
10
Q
contact inhibition (petri dish) mediated by what molecules
A
cadherins and catenins

loss = sign of malignancy
11
Q
respiratory symptoms in superior vena cava syndrome due to..
A
laryngeal edema

often due to lung cancer/lymphoma
12
Q
axially nerve injury caused by?
A
fracture of surgical neck of humerus
13
Q
how do osteoclasts resorb bone
A
form howship lacunae and secrete acid (made by intracellular carbonic anhydrase)

note: osteoclasts: multinucleated, from monocytes
14
Q
negri body in hippocampus
A
rabies infxn
15
Q
renal plasma flow =
A
RBF x (1-Hct)
16
Q
definition of orthostatic hypotension
A
decrease of 20mmHg systolic
or 10mmHg diastolic

more sensitive: HR increase w/ standing
17
Q
acitretin
A
systemic therapy for psoriasis
retinoid
teratogenic
18
Q
how do aminoglycosides get into cell
A
O2 dependent, energy-dependent
19
Q
aminoglycoside resistance (3)
A
1. poor penetration
2. can't bind to 30s subunit
3. destruction by bacterial enzymes
20
Q
only FDA approved drug for obesity?
A
orlistat

inhibit intestinal lipase, inhbiit fat absorption
21
Q
fenfluramine
A
anoretic
increase 5-HT levels

little long term efficacy; pulmonary HTN and valvulopathy
22
Q
rectal blood supply
A
1. superior rectal: IMA (portal)
2. middle rectal: internal iliac
3. inferior rectal: internal pudendal

similar for venous drainage
23
Q
inferior epigastric vein drains to..
A
external iliac
24
Q
azygous =
A
right lumbar + right subcostal above diaphragm

does not exist below diaphragm
25
Q
where is glycogen stored
A
liver and muscle
26
Q
2 fates of F6P
A
fasting: gluconeogenesis
fed: glycolysis

regulated by F2,6BP (high in fed, low in fasting)
27
Q
what regulates formation of F2,6BP
A
1 enzyme, ultimately PKA

GLUCAGON increases cAMP, increases PKA,
-decreases F2,6BP (converts to F6P for gluconeogenesis)

INSULIN decreases cAMP, decreases PKA
-increases F2,6BP, stimulates PFK-1 for glycolysis
28
Q
cavernous sinus receives drainage from..
A
1. cerebral veins
2. facial veins (via superior& inferior opthalmic vein)
29
Q
what cranium sinus can be affected by facial (orbit, nose, paranasal sinus) infxn?
A
cavernous! bc also gets venous drainage from facial veins!
30
Q
danazol
A
androgen used to suppress FSH and LH by pituitary

used in: endometriosis
31
Q
parasite with ingested RBC
A
entamoeba histolytica
32
Q
increased lumbar lordosos 'sway back' associated w/ excessive flexion of..
A
hip flexors

give pelvic an anterior tilt

or, weak hip extensors
33
Q
GLP-1
A
glucagon-dependent insulin peptide
or
gastrin-inhibitory peptide (supraphysiological levels)

part of incretin effect, increase insulin release

released by K cells of intestine
34
Q
CCK stimulates
A
pancreatic ENZYME secretion
bile production & GB contraction

protein, lipid sensitive
35
Q
Secretin stimulates
A
pancreatic BICARB secretion
also gallbladder & dudenum BICARB secretion

acid sensitive
36
Q
ACE inhibitors in pregnancy
A
NO! teratogen
37
Q
ACE inhibitors on fetal kidney develop
A
angiotensin II needed for normal fetal renal development

renal atrophy, ultimately anuria --> potter sequence
38
Q
apoB48
A
chylomicron -- secreted from intestinal cells
39
Q
apoB100
A
VLDL -- secreted from hepatocytes
40
Q
ApoE
A
recycle, back to liver
41
Q
ApoC
A
activate lipoproteinlipase
42
Q
apoA
A
activate LCAT (esterify cholesterol, less toxic)
on VLDL