usmle2: block 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in usmle2: block 2 Deck (42)
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1
Q

spleen immune fxn (2)

A
  1. mononuclear phagocytes ingest unopsonized organisms (encapsulated organisms)
  2. contains half of total body Ig-producing B cells. needed to opsonize bacteria
2
Q

radiation to head/neck

A

think: thyroid neoplasm

3
Q

familial associated of melanoma

A

CDKN2A

4
Q

Kluver-Bucy syndrome? associated w/

A

temporal damage, esp amygdala

inappropriate sexual activity, oral fixation, hyperphagia, visual agnosia, aphasia, lacid, amnesia, distractable

associated w/ HSV-1 encephalitis

5
Q

insula cortex

A

subjective emotional experience
pain
body representation
conscious cravings

active when drug abusers see cues that trigger craving

6
Q

ventilation =

A

tidal volume x respiratory rate

7
Q

pathophysiology of tardive dyskinesia (2)

A
  1. upregulation of central dopamine receptors

2. decrease in cholinergic activity in striatum

8
Q

how is epinephrine made?

A

NE -> dopamine
via Phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase
PMNT

9
Q

COPD: increased PFT? decreased

A

increased TLC, RV, and FRC

decreased FEV1/FVC

10
Q

contact inhibition (petri dish) mediated by what molecules

A

cadherins and catenins

loss = sign of malignancy

11
Q

respiratory symptoms in superior vena cava syndrome due to..

A

laryngeal edema

often due to lung cancer/lymphoma

12
Q

axially nerve injury caused by?

A

fracture of surgical neck of humerus

13
Q

how do osteoclasts resorb bone

A

form howship lacunae and secrete acid (made by intracellular carbonic anhydrase)

note: osteoclasts: multinucleated, from monocytes

14
Q

negri body in hippocampus

A

rabies infxn

15
Q

renal plasma flow =

A

RBF x (1-Hct)

16
Q

definition of orthostatic hypotension

A

decrease of 20mmHg systolic
or 10mmHg diastolic

more sensitive: HR increase w/ standing

17
Q

acitretin

A

systemic therapy for psoriasis
retinoid
teratogenic

18
Q

how do aminoglycosides get into cell

A

O2 dependent, energy-dependent

19
Q

aminoglycoside resistance (3)

A
  1. poor penetration
  2. can’t bind to 30s subunit
  3. destruction by bacterial enzymes
20
Q

only FDA approved drug for obesity?

A

orlistat

inhibit intestinal lipase, inhbiit fat absorption

21
Q

fenfluramine

A

anoretic
increase 5-HT levels

little long term efficacy; pulmonary HTN and valvulopathy

22
Q

rectal blood supply

A
  1. superior rectal: IMA (portal)
  2. middle rectal: internal iliac
  3. inferior rectal: internal pudendal

similar for venous drainage

23
Q

inferior epigastric vein drains to..

A

external iliac

24
Q

azygous =

A

right lumbar + right subcostal above diaphragm

does not exist below diaphragm

25
Q

where is glycogen stored

A

liver and muscle

26
Q

2 fates of F6P

A

fasting: gluconeogenesis
fed: glycolysis

regulated by F2,6BP (high in fed, low in fasting)

27
Q

what regulates formation of F2,6BP

A

1 enzyme, ultimately PKA

GLUCAGON increases cAMP, increases PKA,
-decreases F2,6BP (converts to F6P for gluconeogenesis)

INSULIN decreases cAMP, decreases PKA
-increases F2,6BP, stimulates PFK-1 for glycolysis

28
Q

cavernous sinus receives drainage from..

A
  1. cerebral veins

2. facial veins (via superior& inferior opthalmic vein)

29
Q

what cranium sinus can be affected by facial (orbit, nose, paranasal sinus) infxn?

A

cavernous! bc also gets venous drainage from facial veins!

30
Q

danazol

A

androgen used to suppress FSH and LH by pituitary

used in: endometriosis

31
Q

parasite with ingested RBC

A

entamoeba histolytica

32
Q

increased lumbar lordosos ‘sway back’ associated w/ excessive flexion of..

A

hip flexors

give pelvic an anterior tilt

or, weak hip extensors

33
Q

GLP-1

A

glucagon-dependent insulin peptide
or
gastrin-inhibitory peptide (supraphysiological levels)

part of incretin effect, increase insulin release

released by K cells of intestine

34
Q

CCK stimulates

A

pancreatic ENZYME secretion
bile production & GB contraction

protein, lipid sensitive

35
Q

Secretin stimulates

A

pancreatic BICARB secretion
also gallbladder & dudenum BICARB secretion

acid sensitive

36
Q

ACE inhibitors in pregnancy

A

NO! teratogen

37
Q

ACE inhibitors on fetal kidney develop

A

angiotensin II needed for normal fetal renal development

renal atrophy, ultimately anuria –> potter sequence

38
Q

apoB48

A

chylomicron – secreted from intestinal cells

39
Q

apoB100

A

VLDL – secreted from hepatocytes

40
Q

ApoE

A

recycle, back to liver

41
Q

ApoC

A

activate lipoproteinlipase

42
Q

apoA

A
activate LCAT (esterify cholesterol, less toxic) 
on VLDL