Flashcards in test #24 4.13 Deck (136)
slow acetylators metabolize which 4 drugs slowly?
P450 acetylation of dapsone, hydralazine, procainamide, and isoniazid
methylation is an important drug biotransformation for..
azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine
gilbert syndrome can affect drug metabolism..
bc some drugs require gluronidation for biotransformation.
(dysfunctional glucoronyl transferase)
drug hydrolysis occurs with..
esterases and amidases
normal amount of amniotic fluid
fetal anomalies associated w/ impaired swallowing (2)? increase urination? (polyhydramnios)
impaired swallowing: duodenal, esophageal, or intestinal atresia (GI obstruction) & anencephaly
increased fetal urination: high cardiac output due to (1) anemia or (2) twin-to-twin transfer
posterior urethral valve
congenital obstruction to urine flow
neural tube defect where vertebral column does not close over spinal cord. (posterior neuropore fails to close).
MI w/ normal coronary artery? think (3)
(1) coronary arteritis, (2) hypercoagulability w/ acute thrombosis, (3) coronary vasopasm
describe libman-sacks endocarditis
verrucous (wart-like) endocarditis, 25% of patients on EITHER side of valve. sterile, finely granular, fibrinous, eosinophilic. may result from immune complex deposition. can progress to valve fibrosis & regurg or stenosis.
polyarteritis nodosa-associated condition w/ lung vasculitis, severe asthma, and eosinophilia (in atopic patients). have necrotizing granulomas
flexor retinaculum aka
transverse carpal ligament.
carpa tunnel is associated with what scenarios?
(1) chronic repetitive stress (typing, knitting)
(2) fluid retention (renal failure, hypothyroidism, pregnancy
(3) diabetes mellitus, acromegaly, rheumatoid arthritis
dialysis associated amyloidosis
B2-microglobulin. can lead to median nerve compression (often bilateral)
endoneural inflammation infiltration with segmental demyelination seen in..
endoneural arteriole hyalinization occurs in..
insulin secretion is stimulation by which 3 systems
(1) blood glucose
(2) parasympathetic: secrete
insulin at smell/sight of food
sympathetic can inhibit or stimulate depending on receptor
(1) alpha- INHIBIT insulin release
(2) beta- STIMULATE insulin release
diphenhydramine, dimenhydrinate, chorpheniramine
commonly used antihistaminic agent (blocks H1). commonly have (1) anti-muscarinic (2) anti-alpha-adrenergic effects
indirect general sympathetic agonist, releases stored catecholamines.
used for nasal decongestion, urinary incontinence, hypotension
alpha receptor agonist on insulin?
inhibit insulin release
beta receptor agonist on insulin
promote insulin release
loratadine, fexofenadine, cetirizine
second generation H1 blockers. less sedating bc less CNS penetration.
alpha-2 agonists (2)
clonidine & methyl-dopa
alpha-2 agonist, does not decrease renal blood flow. hypertensive urgency, ADHD
alpha-2 agonist. hypertension in pregnancy
classic anti-inflammatory effects
generally TGF-beta shuts it all down. and IL-10 shuts down cell-mediated and enhances humoral.
TGF-beta: (1) inhibit Th2 lymphocyte differentiation, (2) cytotoxic T cell activities, and (3) B-cell immunoglobulin secretion.
also suppress NK, LAK, and cytotoxicity of mononuclear phagocytes
IL10 (1) inhibits IL-2 and IFN-gamma production by Th1 cells, (2) enhances IL-4 and IL-5 production by Th2 lymphocytes. (3) inhibits TNF-alpha and IL-12 by monocytes and (4) decreases NK cell IFN-gamma production. (5) inhibit monocyte MHC class II and B7 expression (impairing antigen presentation)
proinflammatory cytokine. made by T cells and monocytes. induces NFKb (important factor in production of inflammatory mediators. IL-1, IL-4, IL-5, IL-12.
persistent lymphedema (chronic dilatation of lymphatic channels) predisposes to..
rare malignant neoplasm of endothelial lining of lymphatic channels.
polypoid form of capillary hemangioma. often grow rapidly, as exophytic red nodules attached by a stalk on gingival or oral mucosa or skin. bleed easily, may be ulcerated. resemble hypertrophic granulation tissue.