test #19 4.9 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in test #19 4.9 Deck (97)
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1

osteocytes (trapped osteoblasts) are connected to one another via..

cytoplasmic extension travel from lacunae through canaliculi, connect via GAP JUNCTION. send signals & exchange nutrients & waste products

2

tight junctions

zona occludens (1st component of junctional compelx)

3

intermediate junctions

zona adherens (2nd component of junctional complex)

4

desmosomes

3rd component of junctional complex

5

maternal blood types A and B often have what type of anti-B and anti-A Abs (respectively)? what about type O?

A and B have IgM (doesn't cross placenta).

type O have predominately IgG anti-A and anti-B type (can cross placenta & cause hemolytic disease of newborn in 3% of pregnancies). can happen w/ 1st pregnancy.

6

in what maternal blood type do we worry about erythroblastosis fetalis and hemolytic disease of newborn?

type O moms with type B or A babies. bc they make anti-B or A IgG.

7

common carotids from what aortic arch?

3rd

8

1st branchial/pharyngeal arch? associated w/ which n.

associated w/ trigeminal n.

neural crest cells make: Maxilla, zygoma, Mandible, vomer, palatine, incus, Malleus. (M's)

mesoderm: muscles of mastication (temporalis, medial / lateral pterygoid, masseter) anterior belly of digastric, mylohyoid, tensor tympani, tensor veli palatini.

9

embryological origin of branchial arches (2)

muscle & arteries = mesoderm.

bone = neural crest cells

10

2nd branchial/pharyngeal arch? associated n?

associated w/ facial n.

neural crest: styloid process, lesser horn of hyoid, stapes.

mesodern: muscles of facial expression, stylohyoid, stapedius, posterior belly of digastric

11

4th and 6th arch

make up cartilaginous structures of larynx.

12

3 most common causes of metabolic alkalosis

1. LOSS OF H+ from body: vomiting, nasogastric suction. loose HCl in gastric secretion, causes serum Cl- to decrease

(leads to DECREASED urinary Cl-, t help. SALINE-RESISTANT

13

bilateral lesions in mamillary bodies & periaqueductal grey area in hospital (in alcoholic)

due to glucose infusion w/o thiamine in thiamine deficient person. PDH needs thiamine!

14

wernicke encephalopathy

(1) opthalmoplegia: horizontal nystagmus, bilateral abducens palsy, complete opthalmoplegia
(2) ataxia: degeneration of all layers of cortex
(3) confusion, apathy, inattentiveness, disorientation: from encephalopathy.

characterestic hemorrhage into mamillary body

15

infuse glucose + ___ in alcoholics & bad diet

THIAMINE (B1)

16

heterophile negative mononucleosis (3)?

CMV, HHV-6, toxoplasmosis

17

coxsackie A causes (2)

(1) asceptic meningitis and (2) herpangina in children

18

nifedipine can..

elevate capillary hydrostatic pressure --> edema

19

common causes of lymphatic obstruction (3)

(1) filariasis,(2) invasive malignancy, (3) iatrogenic (surgical lymph node dissection & radiation therapy)

20

downstream signaling targets of insulin

generally: insulin receptor substrates (IRS), leading to acrivation of a PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE.

DEPHOSPHORYLATES GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE (1. activates glycogen synthase to promote glycogen synthesis & 2. dephosphorylates fructose 1,6 bisphosphatase to inactivate & block gluconeogenesis)

21

facial n. constituents.. (4)

1. motor to facial muscles
2. parasympathetic to lacrimal, submandibular, sublingual salivary glands.
3. special afferent fibers for taste (ant 2/3)
4. somatic afferents from pinna and external auditory canal

bell's palsy: unilateral face paralysis (impaired eye closure, eyebrow sagging, inability to smile/frown on affected side, loss of nasolabial fold, mouth drawn to non-affected side. can have: decreased tearing, hyperacusis, loss of taste sensation over anterior 2/3rd of tongue

22

geniculate ganglion

parasympathetic ganglion for submandibular, sublingual, and lacrimal glands. innervated by facial n.

23

motor in trigeminal?

V3 -- muscles of mastication and tensor tympani

24

filtration fraction

fraction of PLASMA entering the kidney that filters into renal tubular lumen.

FF = GFR/(1-Hct x RBF)

25

in gastrectomy, must supplement with

B12 (water soluble vitamin)

26

role of pepsin in digestion

activated by HCl, cleaves polypeptides at sites of aromatic amino acids. helpful, but not required for protein digestion.

27

premature ovarian failure age? mean age of menopause in US? marker?

ovarial failure before 35. mean age of menopause in US: 52. HIGH FSH (above 30uL)

28

urinary 17-ketosteroids

measure adrenal androgens (DHEA, DHEA-S, 4androstenedione)

29

chronic lymphedema is a risk factor for..

development of cutaneous angiosarcoma (St

30

chronic lymphedema is a risk factor for..

cutaneous (lymph)angiosarcoma.

classic: radical masectomy w/ axillary lymph node dissection --> multiple firm violaceous nodules