#3 3/8 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in #3 3/8 Deck (110)
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1

describe a koilocyte

sign of HPV infection; immature squamous cell w/ dense, irregularly staining cytoplasm, perinuclear clearing. enlarged nucleus w/ undulating 'rasinoid' membrane, perinuclear vacuoles. pynknotic

2

HPV infection presentation (3 possibilities)

1. skin warts (verruca vulgaris) HPV 1-4
2. genital warts (condylomata acuminatum) HPV 6,11
3. Intraepithelial neoplasia of cervix (CIN) and vulva: HPV 16, 18, 31, 33, 35

3

describe endometrial cells

resemble histiocytes: small dark nuclei, no perinuclear clearing

4

describe parabasal cells in Pap smear

epithelial cells: round with a basophillic cytoplasm & finely granular chromatin in nuclei, no visible nucleoli, high N/C ratio. predominate in Pap from post-menopausal and post-partum women

5

describe glandular endocervical cells in Pap smear

indicate good sample: columnar with prominent cell borders. cluster = honeycomb

6

how much atherosclerotic blockage is needed for stable angina? unstable angina?

>75% for stable angina. >90% for unstable angina

7

4 conditions associated w/ Down's syndrome

1. Alzheimer's (extra copy of APP)
2. acute leukemia: AML and ALL
3. congenital heart disease: endocardial cushion defects
4. GI defects: duodenal atresia and Hirschsprung

8

clinical presentation of Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease

rapidly progressive dementia and myoclonic jerks

9

Nesiritide

recombinant brain natriuretic peptide (BNP). used in patients w/ decompensated left ventricle dysfunction leading to CHF. activate guanylyl cyclase. vasodilate, diuresis/natriuresis, decrease BP. counteract sympathetics, endothelin, and ANG II

10

where is endorphin made?

endogenous narcotic, made by corticotrophs in

11

three effects of TGF-beta

1. inhibition of cell cycle
2. promotion of angiogenesis
3. stimulation of fibroblasts

12

bradykinin; where is it made, what does it cause?

kidney, locally constricts veins and dilates arterioles (increase renal perfusion). implicated in angioedema (rx: ace inhibitors)

13

3 possible causes of acute orchitis

1&2 in young pts: c. trachomatis & n. gonorrhea. 3 in older: e. coli

14

predisposition to testicular torsion

congenitally-horizontal positioning of testes "bell-clapper deformity"permits rotation of testes around spermatic cord

15

hypospadias caused by..
epispadias caused by..

- incomplete closure of urethral folds
- faulty positioning of the genital tubercle

16

t-sample T test

determine if the means of 2 populations are equal/not.

need two means, sample variance, and sample size. calculate T-statistic and then p-value

17

linear regression

relationship between dependent and independent variable

18

correlation coefficient

measure of strength and direction of a linear relationship

19

meta-analysis

epidemiological method of analyzing pooled data from several studies, increasing statistical power beyond that of individual studies

20

generalized anxiety disorder criteria

excessive and uncontrollable worry w/ 3+ non-worry symptoms (irritability, disturbed sleep, poor concentration, muscle tension, easy fatiguability, restlessness)

for at least 6 months

21

classic presentation of acute intermittent porphyria (AIP)

abdominal pain, neurpsychiatric manifestations, and colour change in urine upon standing (excess prophyrinogen in urine --> light-induced formation of porphyrins)

22

where is heme produced (2)

85% in bone marrow erythroid cells for hemoglobin. 15% in liver for cytochrome p450 detox enzyme system

23

enzyme deficiency in acute intermittent porphyria & toxic agents (2)? Rx?

porphobillinogen deaminase (hydroxymethylbilane synthase) deficiency. accumulation of ALA and PBG, which are toxic to human tissue

Rx: intravenous heme preps and glucose --> inhibits ALA synthase activity

24

distinguish enzyme deficiency in early steps of porphyrin synthesis vs. latter steps (after condensation of porphobilinogen)

early (AIP): neurologic abnormalities w/o photosensitivity, darkening of urine when standing, increased urinary ALA and PBG

later: photosensitivity.

25

coronary steal phenomenon

collateral blood flow and maximal vasodilation in ischemic areas allows for maintenance of perfusion (low pressure drives flow through collaterals). normal myocardium has normal vascular size

selective coronary vasodilators (adenosine & dipyridamole) vasodilate blood flow to normal myocardium, but can't vasodilate vasculature to ischemic tissue anymore. blood flow through collaterals reduce. hypoperfusion, worsening ischemia.

26

explain the use of selective coronary vasodilators in myocardial perfusion studies

ADENOSINE and DIPYRIDAMOLE:
simulate coronary steal phenomenon. reveal changes that would occur w/ exercise (vasodilation of normal coronary vasculature --> ischemia in regions w/ collateral flow / obstruction

27

burkitt lymphoma translocation

typically t(8,14) c-myc w/ IgG heavy chain enhancer
but can be t(8,2) w/kappa light chain
or t(8,22) w/ lambda light chain

28

CML translocation

t(9,22) bcr-abl fusion protein

29

follicular lymphoma

t(14,18) bcl-2 (anti-apoptotic) and IgG heavy chain enhancer element

30

mantle cell lymphoma

t(11,14) CD-1 with IgG heavy chain enhancer