Flashcards in test #26 4.14 Deck (102)
how is Ca2+ cleared from cells during relaxationi muscle cells
(1) Ca2+ ATPase on SR
(2) Na+ / Ca2+ exchanger on sarcolemma (3Na in, 1 Ca out)
calmodulin activates some plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase
how is Ca2+ released from sarcoplasmic reticulum in cardiac myoctes? skeletal?
cardiac: Ca2+ dependent calcium release via ryanodine receptors
skeletal muscle: DHP-tethering of ryanodine receptor (mechanical)
gestational diabetes on fetus
glucose enters baby's circulation. insulin does not.
high maternal glucose --> hyperglycemia in baby --> causes beta-cell hyperplasia in baby.
post birth, continued increased insulin secretion in baby --> hypoglycemia, and increased fat deposition
immature ego defense: invents logical reasons to explain actions actually performed for other reasons (usu to avoid self-blame)
theory of personality development that emphasizes the important of observing and imitating the behaviors, attitudes, and emotional reactions of others.
bipolar disorder w/ psychotic features vs. schizoaffective disorder?
schizoaffective: schizophrenia + mood symptoms.
at least 2 wk period stable psychotic symptoms (in the absence of prominent mood symptoms)
bipolar disorder: mainly defined by presence of manic episodes.
bipolar disorder diagnosis
bipolar I: at least 1 manic episode (w/ or w/o hypomanic or depressive episode)
bipolar II: presence of a hypomanic and a depressive episode
diagnosis of a manic episode
DIG FAST. lasting at least 1 week. requiring hospitalization or 3 of the following
irresponsible (seek pleasure w/o regard to consequence)
flight of ideas
what drug has been shown to reduce mortality in individuals w/ acute coronary syndrome?
rate limiting step in catecholamine synthesis?
tyrosine hydroxylase (tyrosine --> DOPA (dihydroxyphenylalanine).
inhibits vesicular fusion of catecholamines.
iliopsoas, rectus femoris, and tensor fascia lata are impt for..
gluteus maximus, semitendinous, semimembranous, biceps femoris - long head impt for..
gluteus medius and minimus impt for
adductor brevis, longus, and magnus impt for..
how to the ureters gain access to the pelvis? what structures is it between?
cross OVER common iliac, UNDER gonadal & ovarian vessels.
enters pelvis at bifurcation of iliac (L4)
LATERAL to internal iliac.
MEDIAL to ovarian artery (in women. in men, testicular artery never enters pelvis -- just goes to pelvic brim --> inguinal canal)
what does coagulase in staph do?
reacts w/ prothrombin, converts fibrinogen to fibrin. fibrin-coating of organism makes it resistant to phagocytosis.
toxin released by clostridium perfingers
alpha toxin, lecithinase, phospholipase C degrades phospholipids
inheritance of chronic granulomatous disease
phases of acute tubular necrosis
(1) initiation (ischemic / nephrotoxic)
- increased fluid retention
- HIGH: K+, H+, anions (sulfate, phosphate, urate), Mg,
- LOW: Na+, Ca2+
(hypocalcemia due to low vitamin D!)
HIGH Na (FeNa > 1)
- vigorous diuresis (high volume hypotonic)
- risk of HYPOKALEMIA --> most worriesome
genetics of early onset alzheimer's (3)? late onset (1)? protective?
-APP, chr. 21
-presenilin 1, chr. 14
-presenilin 2, chr. 1
-apoE4, chr. 19
-apoE2, chr 19
genetics of familial hypercholesterolemia (IIa)
autosomal dominant. mutation in LDL receptor -- absent or defective.
HET: cholesterol = 300
HOM: cholesterol = 700 (RARE)
increased cholesterol deposits & atherosclerosis
genetics of hyperchylomicronemia (I)
autosomal recessive. mutation in (1) lipoprotein lipase OR (2) apolipoprotein CII.
increased xanthoma but not atherosclerosis.
genetics of hypertriglyceridemia (IV)
autosomal dominant. hepatic overproduction of VLDL. causes pancreatitis.
what is the primary drive respiratory drive? in COPD patients?
increased CO2 (central chemoreceptors)
hypoxemia only kicks in when extreme (PaO2 < 60) in aortic & carotid bodies.
COPD: chronic CO2 no longer stimulates respiratory centers. HYPOXEMIA is primary drive.
why must supplemental oxygen be used with caution in COPD patients?
hypoxemia is now primary respiratory drive. supplemental oxygen HALTS drive.
(bc chronic hypercapnia no longer stimulates respiratory centers)
pulmonary stretch receptors (myelinated & unmyelinated C fibers in lung & airways)
regulate duration of inspiration/expiration depending on degree of lung distension.
UTI w/ dysuria and hematuria that resolves in a few days most likely caused by...
adenovirus (serotypes 11 and 21 subgroup B)
most common cause of fatal diarrhea in children
rotavirus (a reovirus). often in winter months