Flashcards in test #32 4.22 Deck (150)
when is hCG detectable
secreted by syncitiotrophoblasts.
zygote implants as blastocoele ~8 days
when does zygote enter uterus
zygote enters uterus as 2-8 celled embryo / morula on day 3-4
hCG production by embryo/zygote begins? in maternal serum
free-floating blastocyst in uterine secretes hCG ~6 days, but won't enter maternal serum until implanatation.
no early than 6-11 days post ovulation in maternal serum (usu day 8)
inflammatory vascular sheathing & hemorrhage
full thickness retinal necrosis & edema. eventually replaced w/ atrophic scar
can result in retinal detachment -- tearing of thin atrophic scar that forms in areas of prior inflammation
when does CMV infect HIV+ patients?
CD4 < 50 cells/uL
converted to 5-FU by fungal cytosine deaminase.
causes RNA miscoding and inhibtion of DNA synthesis
IFN-alpha used to treat (4)
(1) hep B and C
(2) hairy cell leukemia
(3) condyloma acuminatum
(4) Kaposi sarcoma
pentamadine rx for?
friedrich ataxia inheritence
pathogenesis in friedrich ataxia? presentation
(1) posterior column and spinocerebellar tract degeneration
(2) loss of larger sensory cells of dorsal root ganglion
children 5-15 y/o w/ gait ataxia (wide-based gait w/ difficulty maintaining balance, progressively slow and clumsy
5 symptoms associated w/ friedrich's ataxia
1. progressive ataxia of all 4 limbs, cerebellar dyfxn, early. degeneration of dorsal column -- loss of position and vibration
2. hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in more than 50% of patients --> cardiac arrhythmia and CHF
3. skeletal abnormalities: kyphoscoliosis, pes cavus, hamemrtoes
4. diabetes mellitus in about 10%
most common cause of death in friedrich's ataxia? (2)
bulbar dysfxn (unable to protect airway)
trinucleotide repeat of friedrich's ataxia. chromosome? codes for?
codes for frataxin = iron binding protein
eroded teeth enamel and enlarged, firm parotid glands, irregular menses (not amenorrhea though)
amenorrhea = almost always in anorexia nervosa
glucagon's action in DKA
(1) stimulate ketoacid synthesis in adipose tissue
(2) increases glyocogenolysis
(5) urea production
peak : C
a: atrial contraction
c: bulging of tricuspid valve into atrium (isovol contraction)
x: opening of pulmonic valve / relaxation of atrial muscle
v: continuous flow of venous blood into atria
y: opening of tricuspid valve (passing emptying)
sign of contrictive pericarditis on JVP wave
y descent is deeper and steeper on inspiration
causes of (chronic) constrictive pericarditis
go from 1-3mm to 4-20mm thick. looks like thick line surrounded heart
caused by radiation therapy to chest, cardiac surgery, and TB
evidence of ischemic heart disease on CT?
clinical signs of constrictive pericarditis
slowed progressive dyspnea, peripheral edema, ascites
what provides nerves, arteries, veins, and lymphatics to ovaries
mesoovarium that covers ovaries, uterine tube, ovarian ligament, round ligament of uterus, portion of suspensory ligament.
blood supply and drainage of ovaries
blood supply from aorta.
right drains to IVC
left to renal vein
nervous supply to ovaries
from vagus n.
common complication in pelvic surgery when ligating ovarian vessels
ligating ureter (traveling underneath)
round ligament of uterus
courses through inguinal canal. links uterus to external genitalia. contains artery of sampson, which is rarely a source of blood.
also round ligament in liver
contains no vessels. courses form uterine pole of ovary to body of uterus, just below uterus
transverse cervical ligament, or cardinal ligament
extends from cervix and lateral fornix of vagina to lateral pelvic walls.
contains uterine artery!
gingival bleeding, echymoses & petechiae, impaired wound healing. perifollicular hemorrhages w/ coiled (corkscrew hairs)
scurvy: lysyl hydroxylase and proyl hydroxylase deficiency
requires vitamin C
occurs in rough ER
1. decreases amount of collagen secreted
2. impairs triple helix stability
3. impairs covalent cross link formation