test #32 4.22 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in test #32 4.22 Deck (150)
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1

when is hCG detectable

secreted by syncitiotrophoblasts.

zygote implants as blastocoele ~8 days

2

when does zygote enter uterus

zygote enters uterus as 2-8 celled embryo / morula on day 3-4

3

hCG production by embryo/zygote begins? in maternal serum

free-floating blastocyst in uterine secretes hCG ~6 days, but won't enter maternal serum until implanatation.

no early than 6-11 days post ovulation in maternal serum (usu day 8)

4

CMV retinitis

inflammatory vascular sheathing & hemorrhage

full thickness retinal necrosis & edema. eventually replaced w/ atrophic scar

can result in retinal detachment -- tearing of thin atrophic scar that forms in areas of prior inflammation

5

when does CMV infect HIV+ patients?

CD4 < 50 cells/uL

6

flucytosine mechanism

converted to 5-FU by fungal cytosine deaminase.

causes RNA miscoding and inhibtion of DNA synthesis

7

IFN-alpha used to treat (4)

(1) hep B and C
(2) hairy cell leukemia
(3) condyloma acuminatum
(4) Kaposi sarcoma

8

pentamadine rx for?

pneumocystis pneumonia

9

friedrich ataxia inheritence

autosomal recessive

10

pathogenesis in friedrich ataxia? presentation

(1) posterior column and spinocerebellar tract degeneration
(2) loss of larger sensory cells of dorsal root ganglion

children 5-15 y/o w/ gait ataxia (wide-based gait w/ difficulty maintaining balance, progressively slow and clumsy

11

5 symptoms associated w/ friedrich's ataxia

1. progressive ataxia of all 4 limbs, cerebellar dyfxn, early. degeneration of dorsal column -- loss of position and vibration

2. hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in more than 50% of patients --> cardiac arrhythmia and CHF

3. skeletal abnormalities: kyphoscoliosis, pes cavus, hamemrtoes

4. diabetes mellitus in about 10%

12

most common cause of death in friedrich's ataxia? (2)

cardiomyopathy

bulbar dysfxn (unable to protect airway)

13

trinucleotide repeat of friedrich's ataxia. chromosome? codes for?

autosomal recessive
chr. 9
GAA
codes for frataxin = iron binding protein

mitochondrial dysfunction

14

eroded teeth enamel and enlarged, firm parotid glands, irregular menses (not amenorrhea though)

bullimia nervosa

amenorrhea = almost always in anorexia nervosa

15

glucagon's action in DKA

(1) stimulate ketoacid synthesis in adipose tissue
(2) increases glyocogenolysis
(2) gluconeongeisis
(4) lipolysis
(5) urea production

16

JVP waves

peak: A
peak : C
dip: x
peak: V
dip: y

a: atrial contraction
c: bulging of tricuspid valve into atrium (isovol contraction)
x: opening of pulmonic valve / relaxation of atrial muscle
v: continuous flow of venous blood into atria
y: opening of tricuspid valve (passing emptying)

17

sign of contrictive pericarditis on JVP wave

y descent is deeper and steeper on inspiration

18

causes of (chronic) constrictive pericarditis

go from 1-3mm to 4-20mm thick. looks like thick line surrounded heart

caused by radiation therapy to chest, cardiac surgery, and TB

19

evidence of ischemic heart disease on CT?

calcified vessels

20

clinical signs of constrictive pericarditis

slowed progressive dyspnea, peripheral edema, ascites

21

what provides nerves, arteries, veins, and lymphatics to ovaries

suspensory ligament

22

broad ligament

mesoovarium that covers ovaries, uterine tube, ovarian ligament, round ligament of uterus, portion of suspensory ligament.

23

blood supply and drainage of ovaries

gonads!
blood supply from aorta.
right drains to IVC
left to renal vein

24

nervous supply to ovaries

from vagus n.

25

common complication in pelvic surgery when ligating ovarian vessels

ligating ureter (traveling underneath)

26

round ligament of uterus

courses through inguinal canal. links uterus to external genitalia. contains artery of sampson, which is rarely a source of blood.

also round ligament in liver

27

ovarian ligament

contains no vessels. courses form uterine pole of ovary to body of uterus, just below uterus

28

transverse cervical ligament, or cardinal ligament

extends from cervix and lateral fornix of vagina to lateral pelvic walls.

contains uterine artery!

29

gingival bleeding, echymoses & petechiae, impaired wound healing. perifollicular hemorrhages w/ coiled (corkscrew hairs)

collagen problem.
scurvy: lysyl hydroxylase and proyl hydroxylase deficiency

requires vitamin C
occurs in rough ER

mutation:
1. decreases amount of collagen secreted
2. impairs triple helix stability
3. impairs covalent cross link formation

30

collagen mutation in ehlers-danlos (type I & II)

mutation in type V collagen