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Flashcards in test #16 4.4 Deck (156)
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1

why does infxn w/ neisseria gonorrhoeae not result in lasting immunity?

modify outer membrane proteins by antigenic variation. Abs made in infxn -- specific for single specific antigenic epitope.

2

kawasaki disease

vasculitis of medium-sized arteries

3

most serious complication of kawasaki disease?

coronary artery aneurysm.

4

symptoms of kawasaki

(1) persistent FEVER (2) bilateral CONJUNCTIVITIS (3) LYMPHADENOPATHY (4) CUTANEOUS involvement: (a) oropharyngeal: erythema of palatine mucosa, fissured erythematous lips, "strawberry" tongue (b) peripheral extremities: edema of hands * feet, erythema of palms and soles, desquamation of fingertips (periungual). (c) generalized rash: polymorphous (usu urticarial) erythemtaous rash beginning on extremities and moving to trunk (centripetal speed).

serious complication: coronary artery aneursym

5

which vasculitides are associated w/ mononeuritis multiplex (peripheral neuropathy of multiple individual nerves)

(1) granulomatosis w/ polyangiitis (2) polyarteritis nodosa

6

caudal regression syndrome. associated w/ & (3) signs

uncontrolled maternal diabetes. babies w/ agenesis of sacrum & occasionally lumbar spine --> (1) flaccid paralysis of legs, (2) dorsiflexed contractures of feet, (3) urinary incontenience

7

range of caudal regression syndrome

isolated anal atresia to sirenomelia (mermaid syndrome)

8

sirenomelia

mermaid syndrome, can result from caudal regression syndrome. legs fused together

9

cocaine on pregnancy

vasoconstriction: insufficient blood flow to developing fetus --> spontaneous abortion, intrauterine growth retardation, placental abruption, and/or prematurity

10

an URI that can negatively impact baby (gestation)

rubella (TORCHES). transmitted respiratroy. MR and congenital heart defects.

11

vitamin A overdose in pregnancy results in...

craniofacial abnormalities, posterior fossa CNS, auditory defects, abnormalities of great vessels (similar to DiGeorge)

12

vitamin A overdose in pregnancy in baby mimics?

DiGeorge

13

strict vegetarians (esp vegans) are at risk for which nutritional defeciencies?

(1) iron and (2) B12

14

tramadol

(1) very weak opiod agonist; also inhibits 5-HT and NE reuptake (2) (SNRI). mult ntx: tram it all w/ tramadol. use for chronic pain

15

positive predictive value

of those two test positive, how many are true positives.

(a/a+b)

16

validity of a test measured by

specificity and sensitivity

17

95% of gas gangrene caused by.. how?

Clostridium perfringes. toxin: phospholipase, cell death --> tissue damage, necrosis, reduction of blood supply. organism metabolizes carbohydrates --> generate gas.

18

clostridium perfinges causes (2)

(1) gas gangrene w/ penetration (2) transient watery diarrhea LATE-onset food poisoning, ingestion of spores in reheated meat dishes. late bc spores must germinate

19

early onset food poisoning (2) vs. late onset (1)

early-onset: preformed toxin (1) s. aureus (2) b. cereus.

late onset: c. perfringes (must germinate)

20

(2) bacteria associated w/ polyarthritis

(1) septic arthritis: gonorrhea (2) Group A strep

21

culture agar for cornybacterium diptheriae (2)?

(1) cysteine-tellurite agar, dark BLACK, slightly iridescent. (2) Loffler's medium -- cytoplawsmic metachomatic granules after stain w/ aniline dye.

22

how does maconkey prevent the growth of gram positives?

bile salts

23

colistin / polymyxin kills what? spares?

kills most gram negatives, but spares neisseria.

24

blood agar w/ bile & hypertonic saline used to..

differentiate enterococci (e. faecalis, e. facium; can grow in both) from nonenterococci group D strep (strep bovis / equinus)

25

Nonenterococcal group D strep grows in..

BILE but not hypertonic saline

26

Bordet-Gengou medium for...

Bordetella pertusus (whooping cough)

27

mental status exam testing: comprehension

follow multistep command

28

mental status exam testing: concentration

months of year backward; serial 7s, world backwards

29

mental status exam testing: visual-spatial

draw a clock face

30

score of 24 or < on mini-mental state exam

dementia