Flashcards in test #8 3.21 Deck (172)
MT-associated motor protein involved w/ anterograde transport of intracellular vessicles / organelles towards + end (DISTANT from nucleus)
actin thin filaments (NOT microtubules)
isotype class switching occurs via..
modification of immunoglobulin GENOME (DNA recombinase & enzymes that excise loops of DNA not being used)
hyper IgM syndrome
mutation in enzymes responsible for isotype switching in B cell, or CD40L in T cells. rx: IVIG
what is present in colostrum
initial maternal milk, contains IgA dimers, joined at Fc region w/ J chain
most common B-cell related deficiency?
selective IgA deficiency
clinical presentation of hyperIgM syndrome (2)
(1) lymphoid hyperplasia and (2) recurrent sinopulmonary infections
amino acid attachment site on tRNA
what is contained in the t(psi)C arm (near 3' end) of tRNA and D loop (near 5' end)?
t(psi)c arm has 3 nucleotide sequence present in all tRNA molecules (ribothymidine, pseudouridine, and cytosine). D loop has unpaired bases
5' end of tRNA serves to..
composed of terminal guanosine. does not participate in amino acid or mRNA binding.
what is the smallest subtype of cellular RNA?
of the people who have disease, how many will test positive (a/a+c)
of the people without disease, how many will test negative (d/b+d)
(1-specificity) x no. people w/o disease
(1-sensitivity) x no. people w/ disease
benign disorder of tyrosine metabolism. autosomal recessive deficiency of homogentisate oxidase (blocked metabolism of phenylalanine and tyrosine at level of homogentisate), preventing conversion of tyrosine to fumarate. homogentisic acid accummulates and excreted in urine. turns black if allowed to stand & oxidize. homogentisic acid deposition in collagen of CT, tendon, and cartilage --> ochronosis --> blue-black pigmentation most evident on ears, nose, and cheeks
black urine on standing
alkaptonuria and acute intermittent porphyria (?)
alkaptonuria clinical presentation
urine turns black when standing. blue-black pigmentation most evident on ears, nose, and cheeks (homogentisic acid deposition in collagen of CT, tendon, and cartilate, causing "ochronosis"
defect in phenylalanine hydroxylase (smaller %age have defect in dihydrobiopterin reductase deficiency). impaired conversion of phenylalanine to tyrosine.
sulfur-containing amino acid synthesized from amino acid serine and homocysteine (which is derived from methionine)
histidine --> FIGLU (formiminoglutamate) ---subsequent rxn--> transfer one carbon from FIGLU to THF, then release NH4+ and glutamate in the process. glutamate subsequently deaminated to form an alpha-ketoglutarate that enters TCA for further metabolism
phenylalanine ----phenylalanine hydroxylase or dihydrobiopterin reductase w/ BH4 --> BH2 conversion----> tyrosine ----tyrosine hydroxylase--> DOPA
how is whole blood prepared prior to storage? what must be considered following massive transfusions?
mixed w/ solutions containing citrate anticoagulant. will be in packed cells. massive transfusions of >5-6 L of blood (total body blood volume) in 24 hours --> chelate serum calcium --> hypocalcemia --> paraesthesia
rx for acute mania (2)
(1) mood stabilizer (lithium, valproate, carbamazepine) and (2) atypical antipsychotic (olanzapine)
SSRI on mania?
known to precipitate manic episodes, contraindicated!
mixed dopamine and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (DNRI) and nicotinic agonism. rx: depression and smoking addiction. risk of exacerbating mania
parvovirus B19 infxn vs. rubella
parvovirus B19: low-grade fever 7-10 days, bright-red "slapped" cheeks, followed by lacy rash on trunk and extremities. rubella: mild fever, discrete maculopapular rash from head to trunk/extremities.
parvovirus B19 in kids vs. adults
kids: low-grade fever --> slapped cheeks FACE --> lacy rash on EXTREMEITIES. adults: symmetrical peripheral arthropathy on fingers, wrist, and ankles
characteristic: occipital and posterior cervical lymphadenopathy. have mild fever and discrete maculopapular rash from HEAD INFERIORLY that resolves in 3-5 days.