Flashcards in test #12 3.31 Deck (118)
epithelium of ovary
simple cuboidal. also known as germinal epithelium. transitions to peritoneum at broad ligament of uterus
epithelium of fallopian tube
simple columnar: ciliated cells, help transport egg/embryo. peg cells: secrete nutrients
epithelium of uterus
simple (psuedostratified) columnar. contains tubular glands. divided into fxnal and basal layers
epithlium of cervix
endo: simple columnar. ecto: stratified squamous. contains cervical glands.
epithelium of vagina
stratified squamous. non keratinized. contains glycogen
acute hemolytic transfusion reaction
chills, shortness of breath, fever, hypotension, DIC, renal failure, hemoglobinuria. think: blood transfusion after MVA: ABO incompatibility: type II hypersensitivity Ab mediated --> activate COMPLEMENT
TNF-alpha released in response to..
bacterial endotoxin-- SHOCK
kartagener inheritence and presentation
autosomal recessive: immotile cilia (microtubular defect): male infertility, recurrent sinusitis, bronchiectasis. situs inversus.
activation of trypsinogen to trypsin
trypsinogen secreted by pancreas --> enterokinase in duodenal lumen --> trypsin
2 protective mechanisms to limit amount of trypsinogen that becomes prematurely activated in pancreas
(1) SPINK1: serine peptidase inhibitor Kazal type I: secreted by pancreatic acinar cells: fxns as trypsin inhibitor. (2) trypsin cleaves other trypsin molecules (its own inhibitor)
rare disorder: mutations in trypsinogen or SPINK1 genes. most common mutation: trypsinogen that is not susceptible to inactivating cleavage by trypsin.
helicobacter pylori is commonly associated w/
(1) peptic ulcer disease (2) gastric adenocarcinoma
treatment of choice for gestational diabetes?
INSULIN. diet and activity modifications alone are efficacious too.
why are oral hypoglycemic mediations avoided in gestational diabetes?
risk of fetal insulinemia and hypoglycemia
most effective motion sickness prevention meds work on...
(1) antimuscarinics or (2) antihistamines w/ antimuscarinic action
pathophysiology of motion sickness? rx?
muscarinic M1 and histaminic H1 pathways stimulated --> nausea and vomiting. first-generation antihistaminic drugs (meclizine and dimenhydrinate) scopolamine --> only anti muscarinic, also effective
H1 receptor blockers fxn by?
increasing proportion of inactive H1 receptors: REVERSE BLOCKADE utimate decreases the activity of H1 receptor
patients w/ amino acids in urine may have...
disorders of amino acid resoprtion: fanconi or hartnup
adult vs. infant botulism
ADULT botulism: consumed preformed TOXIN.
INFANT: consume c. botulinum SPORE
which cells directly mediate the vascular response to endothelial and intimal injury (leading to intimal hyperplasia // fibrosis)
reactive smooth muscle cells! injured endothelial cells secrete factors, (PDGF, FGF, endothelin-1) --> promote SMC migration, proliferation from media to intima & produce new connective tissue. macrophages help.
rare, autosomal dominant condition characterized by (1) presence of capillary hemangioblastomas in retina/cerebellum, (2) congenital cysts/neoplasms in kidney, liver, pancreas. increased risk for (3) renal cell carcinoma (can be bilateral)
von Reckinghausen's disease
NF1 (chromosome 12, 12 letters) inherited PERIPHERAL nervous system tumor. neurofibromas, optic nerve gliomas, lisch nodules (pigmented nodules of iris), cafe-au-lait (hyperpigmented cutaneous macules)
autosomal dominant nervous system tumor. bilateral cranial n VIII schwannomas & mult meningiomas
Sturge Weber (encephalotrigeminal angiomatosis)
rare congenital neurocutaneous disorder: cutaneous facial angiomas (port-wine stain) and leptomeningieal angiomas. skin: usu V1 or V2. mental retardation, seizures, hemiplegia, skull radiopacities: tram-track calcifications
cortical and subependymal HAMARTOMAS. cutaneous angiofibromas (adenoma sebaceum), visceral cysts (i.e. kidney, liver, pancreatic), renal angiomyolipoma and cardiac rhabdomyoma. SZ. other hamartomas too.
hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. autosomal DOMINANT. rupture --> epistaxis, GI bleed, hematuria. cysts not common
two common scenarios where antibiotics are prescribed but not needed
(1) VIRAL URI (2) acute otitis media (which resolves spontaneously often)
cutaneous lateral aspect of leg? medial aspect of leg
lateral: common peroneal (L4-S2). medial: femoral (L2-L4)
formula for number needed to treat
1/ARR. ARR (event rate in placebo - event rate in treatment)