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Flashcards in facts from sim test 4.30 Deck (75)
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1

venous drainage to anal canal above/below the pectinate line

above: superior rectal vein -> inferior mesenteric -> portal circulation

below: middle & inferior rectal vein -> internal pudendal -> inferior mesenteric -> internal iliac -> IVC

2

most likely site for external hemorrhoids

posterior canal -- poor perfusion

3

coarctation murmur

systolic, best auscultated in interscapular region

due to turbulent flow through narrow lumen

4

braf v600e mutation in? rx?

melanoma!. mutation in BRAF kinase.

rx: vemurafenib: BRAF kinase inhibitor

5

origin of gut tube lining from esophagus to above pectinate line

endoderm

6

VACTERL syndrome

mesodermal origins

vertebral defects
anal atresia
cardiovascular defects
tracheoesophageal fistula
renal defects
limb defects (bone & muscle)

7

luminal epithelial derivatives: endoderm

lung, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, eustachian tube, thymus, parathyroid, thyroid follicular

8

toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST-1) vs. toxic shock-like toxin

both toxin shock syndrome

TSST-1: staph aureus

Toxic shock-like toxin: S. pyogenes

both superantigens

9

arthus reaction

local subacute antibody mediated HSR Type III reaction.

intradermal injection of antigen induces antibodies, form antigen-antibody complexes in skin.

edema, necrosis, complement activation

10

Streptococcus mitis

alpha-hemolytic strep in mouth

11

modifications made in golgi (3)

1. add N-olgosaccharides in asparagine
2. adds O-oligosacch on serine/threonine
3. mannose-6-phosphate to traffic to lysosomes

12

endosomes

sorting center for material from outside cell or from golgi -- send to lysosome for destruction or back to membrane/golgi

13

I cell disease: defect & presentation

inherited.

defective in mannose-6-phosphotransferase --> lysosomal proteins secreted extracellular

presentation:
1. coarse facial features
2. clouded cornea
3. restricted joint movement.

high plasma levels of lysosomal enzymes.

often fatal

14

COPI vesicle trafficking protein

golgi -> golgi (retrograde)

gogi -> ER

15

COPII vesicle trafficking protein

golgi -> golgi anterograde

ER to golgi

16

clathrin

trans-golgi -> lysosomes; plasma membrane -> endosomes

--> receptor mediated endocytosis

17

peroxisome

membrane-enclosed organelle involved in catabolism of

1. very long chain fatty acids,
2. branched chain fatty acids, &
3. amino acids

18

recurrent fungal and myobacterial infection?

IL-12 receptor deficiency
autosomal recessive

reduced Th1 response

reduced IFN-gamma

19

mnemonic for branchial arches

chew (1),
then smile (2),
then swallow stylishly (3),
or simply swallow (4), &
then speak (4)

20

1st branchial arch

M

cartilage: meckel cartilage: Mandible, Malleus & incus, spheno-Mandibular ligament

muscles: muscles of Mastication (temporalis, Masseter, lateral & Medial pterygoid), mylohyoid, anterior belly of digastric, tensor tympani, tensor veli palatini

CN: V2 and V3

21

treacher-collins

1st arch neural crest fails to migrate -> mandibular hypoplasia and facial abnormalities

22

2nd branchial arch

S
Reichert cartilage:
Stapes, Styloid process, lesser horn of hyoid, Stylohoid ligament

mucles of facial expression, stapedius, stylohyoid, plastysma, belloy of digastric

CN: VII

23

congenital pharyngocutaneous fistula

persistence of cleft & pouch --> fistula between tonsilar area and lateral neck

24

3rd branchial arch

cartilage: greater arch of the hyoid

muscle: stylopharyngeus

CN IX: glossopharyngeal

25

4th branchial arch

(w/ 6th for cartilage): thyroid, cricoid, arytenoid, cornuculate, cuneiform

muscle: most PHARYNGEAL constrictors; laryngeal: CRICOTHYROID, levator veli palatini

CN X: superior laryngeal branch (swallow)

26

6th branchial arch

(w/ 4th for cartilage): thyroid, cricoid, arytenoid, cornuculate, cuneiform

muscle: all intrinsic muscle of LARYNX, EXCEPT CRICOTHYROID.

CN X: recurrent laryngeal branch (speak)

27

which branchial arches make up the posterior 1/3 of tongue

arches 3 & 4

28

mnemonic for branchial pouches

ears, tonsils bottom to top
1. ear (endoderm-lined structures: middle ear cavity, eustachian tube, mastoid air cells)

2. tonsil: epithelial lining of palatine

3. dorsal wings: inferior parathyoid
ventral: wings: thymus

4: dorsal wings: superior parathyroids

4th & 5th pouch -- parafollicular cells of medullary thyroid

29

cleft lip follows failed fusion of..

maxillary & medial nasal processes (primary palate)

30

cleft palate follows failed fusion of..

two lateral palatine processes

or lateral palatine process w/ nasal septum / medial palatine fossa