17 - The Digestive System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 17 - The Digestive System Deck (85)
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30

Salivary glands in front of and inferior to the ear.

Parotid salivary glands

31

The smooth membrane that lines the abdomen. It folds back over the organs.

Peritoneum

32

The thick muscular valve that allows food to move into the duodenum.

Pyloric sphincter

33

The opening from the stomach to the intestine.

Pylorus

34

The last segment of the large intestine that joins the sigmoid colon and the anus.

Rectum

35

The folds of the gastic mucosa (stomach lining).

Rugae

36

The secretions of the salivary glands

Saliva

37

Glands that produce saliva to moisten the oral cavity and food; saliva contains antibodies and other substances that protect against infections in the mouth as well as enzymes that aid in the digestion of carbohydrates.

Salivary glands

38

The segment of the colon that connects the descending colon to the rectum.

Sigmoid colon

39

The tube of the GI tract with three distinct segments (duodenum, jejunum and ileum) that are involved in the absorption of nutrients into the body. In the human adult, it is approximately 22 feet long.

Small intestine

40

The largest portion of the GI tract, situated between the esophagus and the small intestine. It secretes gastric juices to assist in the breakdown of food.

Stomach

41

Salivary glands located under the tongue.

Sublingual salivary glands

42

Salivary glands located under the jawbone

Submandibular salivary glands

43

The layer of tissue beneath a mucous membrane.

Submucosa

44

The hard appendages in the mouth made of dentine and enamel that enable mastication (chewing)

Teeth

45

The tear-shaped appendage hanging down in the center of the edge of the soft palate.

Uvula

46

Tiny projections on the inner intestine walls that aid in absorption

Villi

47

A contriction in the lower portion of the esophagus caused by unrelaxed sphincter muscles.

Achalasia

48

The abnormal return of stomach contents back into the esophagus.

Acid reflux

49

Fibrous bands abnormally binding to tissue (such as scar tissue).

Adhesion

50

An eating disorder characterized by an unrealistic self-image of the body, with a pathological fear of becoming fat, excessive dieting, and emaciation. No loss of appetite occurs until the late stages of the disease; primarily affects girls and young women.

Anorexia nervosa

51

An inflammation of the appendix

Appendicitis

52

"Rumbling" noises in the GI tract, caused by gas moving through the intestines.

Borborygmus

53

An eating disorder characterized by self-induced purging (vomiting and/or diuretic and laxative abuse) after binge eating; strict dieting, fasting, or obsessive exercising to prevent weight gain.

Bulimia nervosa

54

A small, painful crater in the mouth; also called an aphthous ulcer.

Canker sore

55

An inflammation of the gallbladder

Cholecystitis

56

The loss of healthy tissue accompanied by fibrosis and chronic inflammation.

Cirrhosis of the liver

57

An inflammation of the colon

Colitis

58

The surgical construction of an artificial opening of the colon through the abdominal wall as a treatment for serious digestive problems.

Colostomy

59

Difficulty in eliminating feces

Constipation