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1

acute inflammation

series of protective changes occurring in living tissue of higher organisms as a response to injury. The function of these changes is to produce a fundamental response that maintains the integrity of the organism.

2

cardinal signs of inflammation

rubor
calor
tumor
dolor
loss of function

3

rubor

redness

4

calor

heat

5

tumor

swelling

6

dolor

pain

7

why there is loss of function with inflammation.

prevents any more damage to area injured.

8

aetiology

what causes a disease

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aetiology of acute inflammation

microorganisms
mechanical
chemical
physical
dead tissue
hypersensitivity

10

microorganisms causing acute inflammation

bacteria, fungi, viruses, parasites. These all cause infection.

11

mechanical causes of acute inflammation

all trauma even if sterile will cause acute inflammation.

12

chemical causes of acute inflammation

acid or alkali will upset pH
bile and urine will cause irritation when in the wrong place.

13

physical causes of acute inflammation

caused by extreme conditions.
eg.
heat-sunburn
cold-frostbite
ionising radiation

14

dead tissue causing acute inflammation

cell necrosis irritates adjacent tissue

15

how does hypersensitivity cause acute inflammation?

it initiates an exaggerated immune response

16

benefits of acute inflammation

-rapid response to non-specific insult.
-cardinal signs and loss of function provide transient protection of inflammed area.
-allows neutrophils access area to provide an immune response.

17

steps in acute inflammation

-changes in vessel radius which causes changes in flow
-change in the permeability of the vessel wall; exudation
- movement of the neutrophils from the vessel to the extra vascular space.

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local changes in vessel radius and blood flow

1. transient arteriolar constriction
2. local ateriolar dilatation
3. relaxation of vessel smooth muscle

19

exudation

net movement of plasma from capillaries to extravascular space

20

proteins in exudate

fibrinogen and immunoglobulin

21

oedema

accumulation of fluid in the extravascular space

22

change in laminar flow during inflammation

normally the WBCs flow in the centre of the blood vessels as they are the biggest, the RBCs flow on the outside. However during inflammation the RBCs group together to for rouleaux so they are found in the centre and the WBCs flow is marginated.

23

phases of emigration of neutrophils

margination- neutrophils move to endothelial aspect of lumen
pavementing- neutrophils adhere to endothelium

24

emigration

neutrophils squeeze between endothelial cells (active process) to extravascular tissues.