Flashcards in outline of disease process Deck (14)
cancer stage 1
cancer is relatively small and contained within the organ itself
cancer stage 2
cancer larger than stage one but not spread into surrounding tissue. sometimes spread into lymph nodes.
cancer stage 3
cancer starting to spread into surrounding tissue and cancer cells present in lymph nodes.
cancer stage 4
cancer has spread from where it started, it has metastasised.
cancer stage 0
carcinoma in situ, a group of abnormal cells which may develop into cancer.
initiation of cancer
examples of chemical carcinogens
-chemicals in cigarettes
-alkylating agents eg. nitrogen mustard
examples of physical carcinogens
ionising radiation, dose-response mechanism
examples of viral carcinogens
-human papillomavirus- cervical cancer
-hepatitis B - liver cancer
- EBV (epstein-barr virus) causes burkitt's lymphoma
ways in which cancer growth is promoted
-activation of oncogenes
-increase in growth factor levels
- inhibition of tumour suppressor genes
current cancer therapies
high doses of radiation kills cancer cells and shrinks tumours
drugs are used to kill cancer cells