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Flashcards in outline of disease process Deck (14)
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1

cancer stage 1

cancer is relatively small and contained within the organ itself

2

cancer stage 2

cancer larger than stage one but not spread into surrounding tissue. sometimes spread into lymph nodes.

3

cancer stage 3

cancer starting to spread into surrounding tissue and cancer cells present in lymph nodes.

4

cancer stage 4

cancer has spread from where it started, it has metastasised.

5

cancer stage 0

carcinoma in situ, a group of abnormal cells which may develop into cancer.

6

initiation of cancer

-chemical carcinogens
-physical carcinogens
-viral carcinogens
-inherited mutation
-age

7

examples of chemical carcinogens

-alcohol
-chemicals in cigarettes
-alkylating agents eg. nitrogen mustard
-aflatoxin
-oxidising agents

8

examples of physical carcinogens

ionising radiation, dose-response mechanism

9

examples of viral carcinogens

-herpes virus-
-human papillomavirus- cervical cancer
-hepatitis B - liver cancer
- EBV (epstein-barr virus) causes burkitt's lymphoma

10

ways in which cancer growth is promoted

-activation of oncogenes
-increase in growth factor levels
- inhibition of tumour suppressor genes

11

current cancer therapies

-surgical removal
-radiotherapy
-chemotherapy
-imunotherapy

12

radiotherapy

high doses of radiation kills cancer cells and shrinks tumours

13

chemotherapy

drugs are used to kill cancer cells

14

immunotherapy

methods used that help the immune system fight the cancer