Flashcards in principles of immunisation Deck (15)
non-immune individual administered with a serum containing antibodies produced by an immune individual. Gives recipient short term immunity.
antigen is administered to non-immune individual. The immune system of the individual produces antibodies against the antigen.
length of passive immunity
length of active immunity
the administration of antigenic material to stimulate an individual's immune system to develop adaptive immunity to a pathogen.
types of vaccination available for active immunity
-killed whole organism
-attenuated whole organism
-subunit (purified antigen)
-toxoid (inacivated toxins)
killed whole organism
pathogen is killed either using heat or chemicals. Then used as a vaccine as it still displays the same antigens
attenuated whole organism
an avirulent strain of the organism is isolated then used as a vaccine.
purified antigen is used as a vaccine.
toxoid is treated with formalin so it retains its antigenic properties but is no longer toxic.
cases where a drug should not be administered as it will cause harmful effects
contraindications of vaccines
-febrile illness (elevated body temperature)
the resistance to the spread of a contagious disease within a population that results if a sufficiently high proportion of individuals are immune to the disease
diseases children are vaccinated against
-haemophilis influenzae type b
-measles, mumps and rubella
-human papilloma virus
-neisseria meningitidis C