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Flashcards in principles of immunisation Deck (15)
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1

passive immunity

non-immune individual administered with a serum containing antibodies produced by an immune individual. Gives recipient short term immunity.

2

active immunity

antigen is administered to non-immune individual. The immune system of the individual produces antibodies against the antigen.

3

length of passive immunity

short-term

4

length of active immunity

long-term

5

vaccination

the administration of antigenic material to stimulate an individual's immune system to develop adaptive immunity to a pathogen.

6

types of vaccination available for active immunity

-killed whole organism
-attenuated whole organism
-subunit (purified antigen)
-toxoid (inacivated toxins)

7

killed whole organism

pathogen is killed either using heat or chemicals. Then used as a vaccine as it still displays the same antigens

8

attenuated whole organism

an avirulent strain of the organism is isolated then used as a vaccine.

9

subunit vaccines

purified antigen is used as a vaccine.

10

toxoid vaccines

toxoid is treated with formalin so it retains its antigenic properties but is no longer toxic.

11

contraindications

cases where a drug should not be administered as it will cause harmful effects

12

contraindications of vaccines

-febrile illness (elevated body temperature)
-pregnancy
-allergy
-immunocompromised

13

herd immunity

the resistance to the spread of a contagious disease within a population that results if a sufficiently high proportion of individuals are immune to the disease

14

diseases children are vaccinated against

-diptheria
-tetanus
-pertussis
-polio
-haemophilis influenzae type b
-streptococcus pneumoniae
-rotavirus
-measles, mumps and rubella
-human papilloma virus
-neisseria meningitidis C

15

vaccines travellers may be given

-Hepatitis A
-Typhoid
-Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A, C, W135, Y
-Cholera
-Yellow fever
-Japanese encephalitis
-Tick-borne encephalitis
-Rabies