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Principles of disease (Ross Lilley) > antibiotics > Flashcards

Flashcards in antibiotics Deck (39):
1

what does benzyl penicillin treat and how is it administered?

mostly gram positive
-strep. pneumoniae
-strep. pyogenes

some gram negative
-neisseria meningitidis

2

what do amoxicillin and ampicillin treat and how are they administered?

gram negative coliforms (that don't produce beta lactamase)
gram positives
-streptococci
-enterococci

3

what does co-amoxiclav treat?

same as amoxicillin but in addition it treats beta lactamase producing coliforms

4

what does flucloxicillin treat?

staphylococcus infections

5

what does piperacillin treat?

extended gram negative cover (broad spectrum)

useful for treating:
-pseudomonas spp.
- enterococcus faecalis
- anaerobes

6

what is pip/taz?

a combination of piperacillin and tazobactam to provide beta lactamase producung organisms cover

7

what do the carbapenems treat?

broad spectrum including anaerobes

8

what do the cephalosporins treat?

both gram negative and positive
positive action decreases with increasing generations
negative action increases with increasing generations

9

what generation cephalosporin is cephradime and what is it good at treating?

1st gen,
good at treating gram positive

10

what generation cephalosporin is cefuroxime and what is it good at treating?

2nd gen.
average for both negative and positive

11

what generation cephalosporin is ceftriaxone and what is it good at treating?

3rd gen.
good at treating gram negative

12

what generation cephalosporin is ceftazidime and what is it good at treating?

3rd. gen
good at treating gram negative
also has activity against pseudomonas spp

13

why must care be taken when prescribing ceftazidime?

it is a cephalosporin so can cause C. Difficile infections

14

what is vancomycin used to treat and how is it administered?

gram positive only
treats MRSA and C. Difficile
given orally and IV

15

what is teicoplanin used to treat and how is it administered?

gram positive only.
given parenterally

16

what is gentamicin used to treat and how is it administered?

mostly gram negative
inc. pseudomonas and coliforms
also staph. (not strep. though)
given parenterally

17

what is azithromycin used to treat?

single dose chlamydia treatment

18

what are clarithromycin and erythromycin used to treat?

mainly gram positive
also organisms causing atypical pneumonia
eg. chlamydia psittacci
coxiella burnetti
mycoplasma pneumonia
legionella pneumophillia

19

what do linezolid and daptomycin treat?

MRSA

20

what does clindamycin treat?

grams positive: strep and staph

21

why must care be taken when prescribing clindamycin?

it can cause pseudomembranous colitis which is associated with a C. Diff infection

22

what is fusidic acid used to treat?

staphylococcus, used along with fluclox.

23

what are the tetracyclins used to treat?

broad spectrum

24

what is trimethoprim used to treat on its own?

UTIs

25

what are trimethoprim and sulphamothaxozole used to treat when they are combined?

chest infections

26

what is ciprofloxacin used to treat?

gram negative
can treat pseudomonas infections aswell

27

what is levofloxacin used to treat?

Gram negative and also has action against strep. pneumoniae so can be used for chest infections

28

what is nalidixic acid used to treat?

UTIs

29

what is metronidazole used to treat?

anaerobes
including C. Diff and bacteriodes

30

what is nitrofurantoin used to treat?

UTIs caused by gram negative, excluding proteus and pseudomonas

31

what is fidoxamicin used to treat?

C. Difficile

32

what are the general side effects of beta lactams

thrush, allergic reactions, encephalopathy and convulsions

33

what are the side effects of vancomycin?

ototoxicity
nephrotoxicity
skin rashes

34

what are the side effects of gentamicin?

ototoxicity and renal toxicity

35

what are the side effects of linezolid?

bone marrow suppression and lowering platelet count

36

why must car be taken when prescribing ciprofloxacin?

it can cause C. Diff

37

which organ is flucloxacillin toxic to?

liver

38

what are the side effects of trimethoprim?

haematological toxicity

39

which drugs cause reversible peripheral neuropathy?

metronidazole and nitrofurantoin