Flashcards in antibiotics Deck (39):
what does benzyl penicillin treat and how is it administered?
mostly gram positive
some gram negative
what do amoxicillin and ampicillin treat and how are they administered?
gram negative coliforms (that don't produce beta lactamase)
what does co-amoxiclav treat?
same as amoxicillin but in addition it treats beta lactamase producing coliforms
what does flucloxicillin treat?
what does piperacillin treat?
extended gram negative cover (broad spectrum)
useful for treating:
- enterococcus faecalis
what is pip/taz?
a combination of piperacillin and tazobactam to provide beta lactamase producung organisms cover
what do the carbapenems treat?
broad spectrum including anaerobes
what do the cephalosporins treat?
both gram negative and positive
positive action decreases with increasing generations
negative action increases with increasing generations
what generation cephalosporin is cephradime and what is it good at treating?
good at treating gram positive
what generation cephalosporin is cefuroxime and what is it good at treating?
average for both negative and positive
what generation cephalosporin is ceftriaxone and what is it good at treating?
good at treating gram negative
what generation cephalosporin is ceftazidime and what is it good at treating?
good at treating gram negative
also has activity against pseudomonas spp
why must care be taken when prescribing ceftazidime?
it is a cephalosporin so can cause C. Difficile infections
what is vancomycin used to treat and how is it administered?
gram positive only
treats MRSA and C. Difficile
given orally and IV
what is teicoplanin used to treat and how is it administered?
gram positive only.
what is gentamicin used to treat and how is it administered?
mostly gram negative
inc. pseudomonas and coliforms
also staph. (not strep. though)
what is azithromycin used to treat?
single dose chlamydia treatment
what are clarithromycin and erythromycin used to treat?
mainly gram positive
also organisms causing atypical pneumonia
eg. chlamydia psittacci
what do linezolid and daptomycin treat?
what does clindamycin treat?
grams positive: strep and staph
why must care be taken when prescribing clindamycin?
it can cause pseudomembranous colitis which is associated with a C. Diff infection
what is fusidic acid used to treat?
staphylococcus, used along with fluclox.
what are the tetracyclins used to treat?
what is trimethoprim used to treat on its own?
what are trimethoprim and sulphamothaxozole used to treat when they are combined?
what is ciprofloxacin used to treat?
can treat pseudomonas infections aswell
what is levofloxacin used to treat?
Gram negative and also has action against strep. pneumoniae so can be used for chest infections
what is nalidixic acid used to treat?
what is metronidazole used to treat?
including C. Diff and bacteriodes
what is nitrofurantoin used to treat?
UTIs caused by gram negative, excluding proteus and pseudomonas
what is fidoxamicin used to treat?
what are the general side effects of beta lactams
thrush, allergic reactions, encephalopathy and convulsions
what are the side effects of vancomycin?
what are the side effects of gentamicin?
ototoxicity and renal toxicity
what are the side effects of linezolid?
bone marrow suppression and lowering platelet count
why must car be taken when prescribing ciprofloxacin?
it can cause C. Diff
which organ is flucloxacillin toxic to?
what are the side effects of trimethoprim?