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Principles of disease (Ross Lilley) > drug delivery systems > Flashcards

Flashcards in drug delivery systems Deck (26)
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1

what are the 4 main groups of drug delivery?

-oral
-injection based
-transdermal
-carrier based

2

carrier based drugs

drugs are attached to substrates eg. liposomes or nanoparticles

3

forms in which drugs are given to patients

tablets or capsules
solutions or suspensions
ointments or creams
inhalation
injections
suppositories
pessaries

4

types of tablets and capsules

regular, modified release, prodrugs, enteric coated

5

what determines the drug delivery system used?

-the dose of drug to be given
-the frequency of administration
-the timing of administration

6

what are the factors that affect a dosage regime?

- find the recommended dose in the British National Formulary
-Is there impaired renal function
-Is there impaired hepatic function
-Consider age and weight
-Consider disease to be treated
-Consider drug toxicity
-Give a starting dose and increase dose to achieve the desired effect

7

which groups of patients are given solutions and suspensions?

young
elderly
patients with difficulty swallowing

8

what are the advantages of tablets and capsules?

-convenient to use
-dose is very accurate
-reproducibilty
-drug stability
-ease of mass production

9

what are enteric coated tablets?

tablets whose disintegration is delayed until the tablet is in the small intestine

10

why are tablets enteric coated?

-to protect the drug from the stomach
-to protect the stomach from the drug

11

what are the advantages of prolonged or delayed release formulations?

-most disorders require prolonged therapy
-maintains drug levels within a therapeutic range
-reduces the need for frequent dosing
-compliance is improved
-improved nursing and doctor compliance

12

what are the advantages of prodrugs?

- the duration of action is prolonged
- degradation is avoided in the gut

13

what is the main advantage of buccal and sublingual administration?

avoids first pass metabolism so is ideal for that are rapidly metabolised by the liver before they reach the systemic circulation

14

advantages of the rectal route?

-bypasses first pass metabolism
-can be used for patients who are unable to swallow

15

when are drugs given intravenously?

rapid onset of action is needed
careful control of plasma levels is required
a drug has a short half-life

16

why may a intramuscular injection be given over IV?

it has a more sustained duration of action, can be months.

17

vaginal routes of administration

pessaries
creams

18

medications administered by subcutaneous injection

insulin
heparin
narcotic analgesics

19

dermojet

sub-cutaneous needleless injection used for mass innoculation

20

pellet implantation

drug is implanted under the skin as a solid pellet

21

percutaneous administration methods

creams, ointments, skin patches

22

advantages of skin patches

controlled, sustained blood levels of drug

23

examples of drugs administered by skin patch

nicotine
opiates
HRT (hormone replacement therapy)
contraception

24

advantages of using administration by inhalation

-Drug delivered directly to site of action
-Rapid effect
-Small doses used
-Little systemic absorption
-Reduced adverse effects

25

carriers used in carrier based delivery

-monoclonal antibodies
-liposomes
-nano particles
-genetic transfer

26

monoclonal antibodies as carriers

bind to antigen and release drug directly to area they need to act on