Flashcards in tumour pathology 2 Deck (17)
causes of cancer
-loss of tumour suppressor genes such as retinoblastoma
-gain of function of oncogenes eg. B-raf
properties of cancer cells
-altered cellular function
-cells capable of independent growth
(however no single feature is unique to cancer cells)
changes in cellular function in cancers
-loss of cell-to-cell adhesion
-altered cell-to-matrix adhesion
-production of tumour related proteins.
proteins produced by tumour cells
types of tumour biomarker
-growth factor and receptors
-immune checkpoint inhibitors
tumour biomrker for teratoma of testis and hepatocellular carcinoma.
tumour biomarker used to monitor colorectal cancer
tumour biomarker used to monitor breast cancer
prostate specific antigen
used to monitor prostate cancer.
morphology of cancer cells
marked variation in size and shape, and mitoses present and often abnormal.
the production of new blood vessels
why tumours carry out andgiogenesis
allows tumours to continue growing over a certain size by providing increased nutrients. Also provides a route for tumour cells to enter circulation.
Steps prior to spreading of tumour
-increased matrix degradation by proteolytic enzymes.
-altered cell-to-cell adhesion and cell-to matrix adhesion.
modes of spread of cancer
rapid form of local spread acrossa body cavity