tumour pathology 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in tumour pathology 2 Deck (17)
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1

causes of cancer

-loss of tumour suppressor genes such as retinoblastoma
-gain of function of oncogenes eg. B-raf

2

properties of cancer cells

-altered cellular function
-abnormal morphology
-cells capable of independent growth
-tumour biomarkers
(however no single feature is unique to cancer cells)

3

changes in cellular function in cancers

-loss of cell-to-cell adhesion
-altered cell-to-matrix adhesion
-production of tumour related proteins.

4

tumour biomarkers

proteins produced by tumour cells

5

types of tumour biomarker

-onco-fetal proteins
-oncogenes
-growth factor and receptors
-immune checkpoint inhibitors

6

alpha-fetoprotein

tumour biomrker for teratoma of testis and hepatocellular carcinoma.

7

carcino-embryonic antigen

tumour biomarker used to monitor colorectal cancer

8

oestrogen

tumour biomarker used to monitor breast cancer

9

prostate specific antigen

used to monitor prostate cancer.

10

morphology of cancer cells

marked variation in size and shape, and mitoses present and often abnormal.

11

angiogenesis

the production of new blood vessels

12

why tumours carry out andgiogenesis

allows tumours to continue growing over a certain size by providing increased nutrients. Also provides a route for tumour cells to enter circulation.

13

metastatic tomour

secondary tumour

14

Steps prior to spreading of tumour

-increased matrix degradation by proteolytic enzymes.
-altered cell-to-cell adhesion and cell-to matrix adhesion.

15

modes of spread of cancer

-local spread
-lymphatic spread
-blood spread
-trans-coelomic spread

16

trans-coelomic spread

rapid form of local spread acrossa body cavity

17

common sites of metastases

liver
lung
brain
bone (axial skeleton)
adrenal gland
omentum (sheet of peritoneum)