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Principles of disease (Ross Lilley) > therapeutic options: cancer > Flashcards

Flashcards in therapeutic options: cancer Deck (21)
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1

preventative measures for cancer

-environment/behaviour change
-diet
-screening -genetics
-medication /vaccination

2

treatments of cancer

surgery
radiotherapy
systemic therapy
immunotherapy

3

what type of food stuff probably causes CRC?

red meat

4

what type of food stuff probably causes breast cancer?

saturated fat

5

general advise for reducing cancer risk (diet and lifestyle)

-eat your 5 a day
-exercise 30 mins a day
-avoid obesity

6

cancers screened for

cervical cancer-smeer test
breast cancer- mammography
CRC- faecal occult blood test

7

inherited cancers that families are genetically screened for

familial adenomatous polyposis (causing CRC)
breast cancer caused by BRCA1 and BRCA2

8

local treatments of cancers

- surgery
- radiotherapy
- ablation (freezing, radio-frequency, etc - isolated limb perfusion

9

systemic treatment

- hormonal therapy
- chemotherapy
- immunotherapy
- whole body irradiation (for bone marrow transplants)

10

what is a requirement of surgery in order for it to be successful?

anatomical clearance

11

when is radiotherapy used?

-to shrink a tumour so it becomes operable
-to treat inoberable lesions

12

what does radiotherapy require in order to be successful?

anatomical coverage

13

5 R's of radiobiology

radiosensitivity
repair
re-population
re-oxygenation
re-assortment

14

repair (5 R's)

radiation must be given in the correct doses to cause cancer cell damage but limit natural cell death

15

re-assortment (5 R's)

cancer cells must be targeted in the phase of the cell cycle at which they are most susceptible to radiation damage.

16

re-oxygenation (5 R's)

cancer cells must be oxygenated so they move through the cell cycle to a stage that will allow them to be killed, if they are stuck in G1 treatment will have no effect

17

re-population (5 R's)

normal cells need to repopulate areas of dead cancer cells. and these areas can't be repopulated by more cancer cells.

18

radiosensitivity (5 R's)

different cells have different responses to radiation

19

when are cytotoxic drugs used?

- for curative treatment
-palliative treatment
- adjuvant treatment (risk of cancer returning)
-neoadjuvant (treatment given to shrink tumour before therapy

20

immunotherapies

-monoclonal antibodies
-innate immune system
-programmed cell death pathway
-CAR T-cell therapy

21

CAR T-cell therapy mechanism

all T-cells removed from body and replaced with T cells that have been modified to be able to detect and destroy cancer cells.