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Principles of disease (Ross Lilley) > Introduction to bacteria > Flashcards

Flashcards in Introduction to bacteria Deck (22)
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1

ways in which bacteria can be identified

-size
-shape
-staining characteristics
-growth requirements

2

bacterial chromosomes

bacteria contain one chromosome, no nucleus.

3

Cell walls of gram positive bacteria

plasma membrane,
thick peptidoglycan layer above.

4

cell walls of gram negative bacteria

plasma membrane, thin peptidoglycan layer, outer membrane, space in between the membranes called the periplasm, lipopolysaccharides embedded in outer membrane.

5

penicillin binding proteins

cross links: transpeptidases, carboxypeptidases, endopeptidases.

6

peptidoglycan

gives strength and shape to cells.

7

lipopolysaccarides

elicit strong immune responses in animals and humans

8

capsule

Mainly made of polysaccharides. prevents phagocytosis of the bacterial cell.
also prevents dessication of the cell

9

Flagellum

allows motility

10

monotrichous

single flagellum on one side of the bacteria

11

lophotrichous

many flagella on one side of the cell

12

amphitrichous

one flagellum on each side of the bacterial cell

13

peritrichous

flagella all over bacterial cell

14

Fimbrae

appendages of bacterial cells that allow adherence

15

plasmid

extra rings of DNA used for horizontal transfer (conjugation)

16

Bacteriophage

virus that infects bacterial cells

17

spore

structure a bacteria can form during environmental stress so the bacteria can survive. Contains a complete copy of the bacteria's DNA.

18

bacterial nomenclature

names are based on genus and species.
Genus is named according to appearance under microscope eg. staphylo- clusters
-coccus round shape
strepto- chains
bacillus- rod shaped

19

gram positive

stain purple, thick peptidoglycan layer in cell wall

20

gram negative

stain pink, thin peptidoglycan layer in cell wall and contains lipopolysaccharides.

21

how bacteria replicate

binary fission to produce two identical progeny

22

detection and culture of bacteria

detected by microscopy. Cultured on agar plates.