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Principles of disease (Ross Lilley) > drug-drug interactions > Flashcards

Flashcards in drug-drug interactions Deck (24)
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1

what is a drug interaction?

the modification of a drugs effect by prior or concomitant (naturally accompanying) administration of another Drug, Herb, Foodstuff, Drink

2

what is the evidence that a drug interaction has occurred?

the pharmacological effect of two or more drugs given together is not just a direct function of their individual effects

3

types of drug interactions

drug with:
-drug
-food
-herbal
-drink

pharmacogenetic interactions

4

pharmacogenetics

study of inherited genetic differences in drug metabolic pathways which can affect individual responses to drugs, both in terms of therapeutic effect as well as adverse effects.

5

what is an object drug?

the drug whose activity is effected by such a drug other compound interaction

6

precipitant

the agent which precipitates a drug interaction

7

diseases whose treatment is reliant on drug interactions

-hypertension
-Parkinson's

8

why is therapeutic drug monitoring carried when treating with drugs involved with serious interaction?

these drugs have narrow therapeutic indexes so any interactions can induce profound toxicity

9

which groups of patients are susceptible to drug interactions?

-patients on many drugs (polypharmacy)
-the elderly
-the young
-the critically ill
patients undergoing complicated surgical procedures
-patients with some chronic conditions

10

chronic conditions which will increase drug interactions

-liver disease
-renal impairment
-diabetes mellitus
-epilepsy
-asthma

11

additive interactions

drug effects are added together

12

antagonistic interactions

drug effects cancel each other out

13

what effects can a drug have in the gut?

-Formation of insoluble complexes
-Altered PH.
-Altered bacterial flora.
-Altered GIT motility.

14

what do drug interactions in the gut cause (in terms of absorption)?

changes in absorption rate

15

what type of antibiotics destroy normal gut flora?

broad spectrum

16

what is the rate limiting step in oral medicines absorption?

gastric emptying

17

what does the displacement of a drug from plasma protein result in?

increased bioavailability as only unbound drug is pharmacologically active

18

what are drug interactions involving metabolism?

occur when one drug induces or inhibits the metabolism of another

19

what is the common metabolic enzyme family that is induced or inhibited by other drugs?

cytochrome P-450

20

pharmacodynamics

the mechanism of a drugs action

21

main ways in which a drug can alter the action of another drug

-altering absorption
- altering distribution
-altering metabolism
-altering excretion
-altering pharmacodynamic interactions

22

direct antagonism

drug will block the binding site of another drug

23

synergistic interactions

two drugs with the same pharmacological effect acting on the same receptor concurrently

24

types of pharmacological interactions

-direct antagonism
-indirect antagonism
-indirect agonism/synergy
-direct agonism/synergy