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Flashcards in B History chapter 2 Deck (27):
1

Black Death

Killed about 1/3 of Europe in the mid-fourteenth century. Increased supply in food for the survivors

2

Reconquest

Spain and Portugals centuries-long drive to expel the Muslims from the Iberian Peninsula

3

Tainos

The Indians who inhabited San Salvador (and other islands) who were the first people Columbus encountered after finding the New World

4

Treaty of Tordesillas

The treaty negotiated in 1494 to delineate land claims in the New World. drew imaginary line west of the line that belonged to spain, and east belonged to Portugal

5

Columbian exchange

The transatlantic exchange of goods, people, and ideas that began when Columbus arrived in the Caribbean. The Spainards also brought diseases to the people of the new world.

6

conquistadors

refers to the Spanish explorers and soldiers who conquered lands in the New World. i.e. (Cortes people)

7

Incan empire

Pizarro conquered Empire. Was along the western part of South America (Peru) Pizarro captured Empire (Atahualpa)

8

Acoma pueblo revolt

Revolt against the Spaniards by Indians living in Acoma pueblo in 1599. Juan Onate for Spain violently stopped their revolt, but the Indians attacked again which made the Spaniards go back to Mexico

9

New Spain

Land in the New World held by the Spanish crown. Spain would use New World colonies to strengthen the kingdom of Europe.

10

encomienda

A system for governing used during the Reconquest and in New Spain. It allowed the Spanish owner of a town to collect tribute from the town in return for providing law and order (encouraging his Indians to convert to Christianity)

11

creoles

Children born to Spanish parents in the New World

12

Protestant Reformtion

Martin Luther bashes on the Roman Catholic Church, which precipitated an enduring schism that divided Protestants from Catholics

13

11th-13th Crusades

1. Exposed trade goods from India and China
2. Old knowledge from Greece and Rome. new knowledge (Arabic numbers)
3. Desire for water route to the east

14

Potugal-(Prince Henry)

Tries to get around Africa. Took 75 years but Vacodagama rounded Africa

15

Portuguese claimed Atlantic Islands. What did they grow?

Grew sugar, imported slaves from African Slave Coast to grow the sugar.

16

Portuguese Sugar and their slaves

Slaves were treated as property. They were life-long inherited status. Always African

17

Christopher Columbus

Wanted to prove that you could get east by going west. Funded by Isabelle and Fernand. (of Spain) Landed on San Salvador. Finding of San Salvador lead to Treaty of Tordesillas

18

Cortes

Conquered Mexico. (Not a good man) Took Mexican King (Montezuma) hostage and held him in Tenotichilian before escaping to Tlaxcala. Tlaxcala and Cortes teamed up and took out the rest of Mexico. A huge reason that the Mexicans were defeated is because of the diseases brought over. (A huge reason to successes was because of his translator (Malinali))

19

Renaissance (14th-16th Century)

Trade w/ Asia led to wealth. Kings sought Power and wealth. Middle class grew, money economy expanded, water route to Asia sought, New Technology Aided Explorers

20

Martin Luther and Protestant Reformation

Luther criticized Catholic Church. (1517) Calvinism: was strict to god's law and scripture. Church of England founded by Henry the 8th.

21

Spanish money efforts

They spent New World wealth on Army and navy. Taxed poor and middle class.

22

Mestizos

the offspring of Spanish Men and an Indian woman. Most were lumped with the Indians, and forced to do work.

23

Magellan's Voyage

Spain sent Magellan to the new world. Overall the trip sucked because only 18 of 250 people made it back. But they did find the Pacific between North America and Asia

24

Pizzarro

he was a Spanish Conquistador who captured the Incan empire in Peru and conquered it after killing the emperor (Atahualpa)

25

Who was the Incan emperor before Pizzaro Conquered Mexican emperor?

Incan: Atahualpa
Mexican: Montezuma

26

Spanish Colonial Model

By 1560 most Indian Civilizations had been captured by the Spaniards and the Indians would have to work for the Spaniards. The Indians started dying because of disease which forced the Spanish to try and import slaves from Africa, however, because of the price of the slaves many had to deal with the dwindling population of the Indians.

27

Prince Henry The navigator (Of Portugal)

Wanted to find new Mediterranean sea travel route. In 1488 Vasco De Gamo founded India and a new travel route. Prince Henry was also a part of the Atlantic Islands findings where they grew Sugar and introduced Chattel Slavery.