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Flashcards in PLS unit one e Deck (82):
1

Politics

the process of picking government officals who make decisions about public policy

2

civic life

participation in the community. Also includes institutions of the government

3

government

the body or bodies charged with making decisions

4

civil society

consists of different things that communities do to bring them together (recycling on campus)

5

social capital

things that are done to create trust between people in a society

6

representative democracy

What the United States does to elect president (have representatives from each state)

7

ruling elite theory

the argument that the wealthy have more say in the government than those who are not

8

pluralism

people with common beliefs get into the same group to try and establish dominance in the government but it rarely works out long term

9

biased plurallism

the wealthy play a larger role in determining the policies than normal citizens

10

direct initiatives

allows citizens to put certain laws directly on the ballet for voter approval

11

Indirect initiatives

citizens put their laws on a ballet and they have to go through legislature before it is sent on for the voters to vote on

12

popular referendum

this allows citizens to act upon laws that legislative has already decided on

13

legislative referendum

ballot measure that tries to gain voter approval for some legislative acts

14

recall

this is where citizens can remove and replace a public official before the end of their term

15

idelolgies

beliefs about how governments should operate

16

liberal democracy

ideology stressing individual rights and expressing faith in popular control of government. ideology that guided the American experience

17

political participation

Taking part in activities aimed at influencing the policies or leadership of government

18

social class

ones wealth, income, education all contribute to it

19

Thomas Jefferson

Called for periodic citizen uprisings to reinvigorate the spirit of democracy

20

Locke (why there is government)

said that people didn't need government in the past because the resources were plenty

21

Locke's Treatise of Government

says that people place themselves under control of government because of the mutual advantages that the government offers citizens

22

political participation

taking part in activities that are aimed at influencing policies or leadership of government

23

electoral majorities

who is elected to office, laws, how laws are administered

24

First time America looked at having a government?

When Britain and the colonies were not getting along

25

House of Burgess

America's first legislative government. consisted of 7 people and started in 1619. Continued to stand even when parliment took over the colonies in 1624

26

First Continental congress

Delegates of all 13 colonies (except Georgia) met in Philly to discuss the issues with parliament. urged boycott of British products

27

Second continental congress

met in 1775 and was used to discuss the colonial army and the upcoming war brewing with Britain

28

sovereign

recognized by the articles of confederation as this. (Also means independent)

29

three main economic concerns at the begininng of the colonies becoming a nation

1.) No common currency
2.) lack of control of inerstate commerce
3.) No way to collect federal taxes

30

Regulators

small farmers who roamed Massachusetts demanding that the tax impose be change...this led to Shay's rebellion

31

Virginia Plan

A two house legislature created by Edmund Randloph and James Madison which benefited the larger states

32

bicameral

meaning two house

33

unicameral

a single body legislature

34

New Jersey Plan

presented by WIlliam Paterson which benefited the smaller states more

35

The Great Compromise

the bill that said that votes will depend on the population of a state. (representative government)

36

Why did New York agree to ratify the constitution?

Alexander Hamilton saying the could be succeeding if they did not sign

37

How many articles are in the Constitution

7

38

Who was the declaration of independence written to protect the rights of?

property owning men

39

Barrons vs Baltimore

this caused the bill of rights to be applied to only the national government

40

Why did the puritans come to America

impatience with the church of England attempt to reform, and the religious persecution in England and Europe

41

American democratic system is protected by which constitutional principles?

federalism, checks and balances, separation of power

42

No. 51 by James Madison

government needs to control the governed and then obligated to control itself

43

Who was the governor of New York who opposed ratifying the constitution?

George Clinton

44

Mayflower Compact

first document for self-governance for the puritans

45

Why did the Federalists write "The federalists?"

In support of the constitution

46

What kind of democracy did the U.S Constitution want to create??

liberal democarcy

47

British trade policies

these were designed to force Colonists to pay for expensive finished goods and provide cheap raw materials for British Merchants

48

Why was the Bill of Rights initially made?

To protect citizens from the actions of the government

49

confederacy

system of government created by the Articles of Confederation, it allowed states to retain independence

50

Who wrote the federalist?

Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison

51

factions

were likely to put their own interests ahead of the best interest for the nation

52

Philadelphia Convention (purpose)

to revise the articles of confederation

53

Article 2

Establishes the executive branch.

54

two ways that an amendment can be proposed to the US Constitution?

approval by two thirds vote of each house of congress and through a national convention requested by the states

55

concurrent powers

shared by state and national government

56

progressive movement

gave increased power to the federal power

57

Reagen fought for state authority in which three areas?

commerce, drinking age, traffic safety

58

nullification

said that states could consider national acts unenforceable within that states borders

59

devolution

returned power to state and local governments

60

service learning programs

agencies that help connect volunteers with organizations in need of help

61

elastic clause

Provision of Article I of the constitution authorizing congress to make those laws necessary and proper for carrying out other laws it passes. (Maryland vs McCullach)

62

supremacy clause

Provision of Article Vi stipulating that the federal government, in exercising any of the power enumerated in the Constitution must prevail over any conflicting or inconsistent state exercise of power (the federal law overpowers the state law)

63

Federalists

supporters of the constitution and its strong central government

64

Antifederalists

Opponents of the ratification of the constitution

65

judicial review

Power of the court to review the acts of other political institutions and declare them unconstitutional

66

federalism

Power-sharing between the national and state governments in which some powers are granted to the national government alone, and some powers are reserved to the states

67

enumerated powers

Powers specifically allocated to the national government alone by the Constitution

68

Reserved powers

Powers constitutionally allocated to the states

69

Police powers

Authority states utilize to protect the health and welfare of their residents

70

concurrent powers

Powers shared by both state and national governments

71

prohibited powers

Powers denied by one or both levels of government

72

nullification

Doctrine that asserted the right of states to disregard federal actions with which they disagreed

73

dual federalism

Approach to federal-state relationships that envisions each level of government as distinct and authoritative within its own sphere of action

74

creative federalism

Federal-state relationship that sought to involve local populations and cities directly in addressing urban problems during the 1960s and 1970s

75

revenue sharing

A grant program begun in 1972 and ended in 1987 that funneled money directly to states and local governments on the basis of population and which were in need

76

devolution

A movement that gained momentum in the 1980s to grant states greater authority over the local operation of federal programs and local use of federal funds

77

categorical grants

Federal programs that provide funds for specific programs such as floor assistance

78

federal mandates

Federal requirements imposed on state and local governments, often a condition for receiving grants

79

unfunded mandates

Requirements imposed on state and local governments for which the federal governments provides no funds for compliance

80

intergovernmental lobbies

Professional advocacy groups representing various state and local governing bodies

81

full faith and credit

constitutional provision requirng each state to recognize legal transactions authorized in other states

82

policy diffusion

The spread of policy innovation across jurisdictions