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Flashcards in Final exam history Deck (97)

John Winthrop

had the idea of a city on the hill. Was elected to serve as governor (after he was a lawyer) by the Massachusetts Bay Company


Pilgrims (Separatists)

These are the people who separated from King James and the church of England to come to America


John Rolfe

married Pocahontas and created a tobacco society in Virginia


House of Burgesses

This was the government that went into effect after the 1622 attack on the English Settlers. Virginia was made into a royal colony. This meant that a king or queen would rule the colony and people needed to respect that monarchy


middle passage

the crossing of the Atlantic by slave ships traveling from West Africa to Americas..slaves were crowed together in tight spaces


The Enlightenment

The enlightenment was led by Ben Franklin and Thomas Jefferson who both seeked to have an open mind and understand nature and ways to improve society. These people thought that science and reason could help disclose God’s laws in natural order. Overall, it just helped change the worlds thinking.


The Great Awakening

George Winfield (came from England) and Johnathan Edwards were both preachers who led this movement. Religion was becoming less and less of a thing and they went around preaching about the importance of it


Ben Franklin

Was a main part of the enlightenment. Also a part of the Albany Plan which wanted to colonial government to have power over the 7 colonies; they wanted them to be unified, but those plans fell through.


Seven Years War

this was a war between Britain and france that ended with Britain's domination of North America. In the end, this also led to the American Revolution. The results of this war turned out to be that America started becoming suspicious toward Britain, and also Britain had a huge national debt under William Pitt after they finally won the war


Stamp Act

This was enforced by Britain to the colonists that all colonists had to pay tax on their paper. Parliament thought that they could do this because they believed in virtual representation, but the colonists were not happy about it


Sons of Liberty

These people gathered in towns and did very harsh things to the distributors to make them take sides with them on the issue of the stamp act


Intolerable acts

This was punishment to Boston for what happened at with the dumping out of the tea earlier. Lord North of Britain enforced these four rules very strictly


Samuel Adams

Involved in the first continental congress. Did not want parliamentary to have any control over the colonies


Patrick Henry

Was in charge of the resolutions to the stamp act. (known as the Virginia Resolves) Also led the House of Burgess


Lexington and Concord

After the Boycotting continued, British soldiers marched across the Charles River, when the British soldiers got to Lexington, they were met by 70 colonists who were armed, The British then fired and the war was on. As the British returned to Boston, The Americans ambushed them, killing 273 on the British side and 95 on the colonists side.


Thomas Jefferson

was in charge (as well as James Madison) for ceding Virginia's land claim in 1781, which led to the Articles of Confederation being approved


George Washington

Was sent during the 7 years war to go tell the Indians in Ohio that they needed to get off of our land. This land was claimed around the same time and it led to 14 Frenchmen being shot and zero Colonists. Also commander in chief of the first colonial army


Articles of Confederation

This was the document worked on for seven years, existing to foster a common defense. A major issue in getting all 13 states aboard was the fact that Delaware and Maryland wanted the Western Lands to be a part of the states, they offered many resources and great land.


Northwest Ordinance

Land act of 1787 that established a three stage process by which settled territories would become states. It also banned slavery in the Northwest territory. The ordinance guaranteed that western lands with white population would not become colonial dependencies.


James Madison

presented the Virginia plan


Missouri Compromise

1820 congressional compromise engineered by Henry Clay that paired Missouri's entrance into the Union as a slave state with Maine's as a free state. It established Missouri's southern border as the permanent line dividing slave from free states



Originally the term for the supporters of the ratification of the U.S. Constitution in 1787-1788. In the 1790s, it became the name for one of the two dominant political groups that emerged during that decade. Federalist leaders of the 1790s supported Britain in foreign policy and commercial interests at home. Prominent Federalists included George Washington, Alexander Hamilton, and John Adams



Opponents of the ratification of the Constitution. These people feared that a powerful and distant central government would be out of touch with the needs of citizens. They also complained that the constitution failed to guarantee individual liberties in a bill of rights.


Alexander Hamilton

He was a federalist.


John Adams



Louisiana Purchase

France sold Louisiana to the United States for 15 million. They needed money for their upcoming war against Britain..It opened the way for America to expand.


Lewis and Clark

1804-1806 expedition led by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark that explored the trans-Mississippi West for the U.S government. The expedition's mission was scientific, political, and geographic. They made good relations with several Indians as well.


War of 1812

War between Great Britain and United States. It happened because the US wanted Florida and Canada from great Britain. Also, the war hawks were the reason we went to war. (leaders were Calhoun and Henry Clay)Another reason to go to war was to stop impressment which was Britain taking our U.S. ships and using capturing the guys to use in the war.


Era of good feeling

very closely associated with James Monroe's presidency..the federalist and antifederalist parties came together


John Quincy Adams

During his presidency he called for canals, roads, and harbors. He also built a university In Washington and government sponsored scientific research. Many people feared he was too much like Hamilton in the way that he used federal power to advance commercial interest.


Eli Whitney

A yale graduate who devised a machine called gin that easily separated out seeds. This allowed cotton production to soar


American system of manufacturing

the practice of manufacturing and assembling parts in a quick time period. This allowed American manufacturers to hire cheap and unskilled workers.


Clay's American system

promoted new American system. This was a package of protective tariffs to encourage manufacturing and federal expenditures for internal improvements such as roads and canals.


2nd great awakening (1800-1820)

3 major changes that needed to take place in the United States. These three things were nonmarital sex, alcohol abuse, and slavery. Church membership doubled and Charles Gandison Finney become a central leader in this awakening


Andrew Jackson

During Jackson’s presidency, he tried to eliminate spending on roads, and move the country even further west. Jackson believed that all Indians should move west of the Mississippi. He then presented the Indian Removal Act of 1830.


John Calhoun

Presented Nullification. This stated that states could overrule congress on a tariff if they thought of it as invalid



This said that states had the right to overpower a rule made by the congress if they did not agree with it. Thought of by John Calhoun


Martin Van Buren

Calhoun was his opponent who was making it hard on him. Martin Van Buren was pro slavery. Promised the south they would keep their slaves if he became president


Jackson's democrats

had a vision of little government. also expanded participation of government in white men


Trail of tears

Jackson removed the Cherokees from Georgia to Oklahoma (West of the Mississippi) he said that it was in their best interest to move. They refused to move for a few years until finally troops came in and made them move


Temperance movement

This was founded by Lyman Beecher who was a Connecticut minister who found that drinking led to less poverty, idleness, crime, and family violence. This led to a steep decline in drinking. Many business owners started to require the temperance pledge. This whole this was just a war against alcohol.


William Lloyd Garrison

started anti slavery society


Abolishment of slavery

Many northern women and William Lloyd Garrison are responsible for the abolishment of slavery


Harriet Tubman

She escaped from Slavery in Maryland in the year 1849. She made many trips for the north and back to the south to escort slaves in what later became known as the underground railroad


Sojourner Truth

Became first black women to win a case against white men. She was an escaped slave who went to court to fight for her son


Nat Turner

Was born as a slave. Led a rebellion against whites in which they killed many whites. Eventually whites got a hold of them and convicted them, and killed most.


Underground railroad

network of black homes, churches, and neighborhoods that helped salves escape to the North by supplying shelter


William Henry

Tried to deny Van Buren a vote in the election of 1836. He was also the Indiana governor who led in the battle of Tippecanoe.


Wilmot Proviso

Had the idea to ban slavery in each of the states that we took from Mexico in the Mexican-American war


Compromise of 1850

Laws passed in 1850 to decide what states could become slave states and free states from the states that just came in from Mexico


Popular Sovereignty

The idea that the people of a state vote for representatives and those representatives hold the authority and power


Zachary Taylor

ran for president as a Whig after he was a Mexican-American war hero. He was a slave owner who was a cotton planter and a southern man. Won the election of 1848


Millard Fillmore

signed into law each bill of the compromise of 1850 and came into presidency when Zachary Taylor died


Franklin Pierce

Won the election of 1852. He was a democrat who was known for his sympathy with southern views on public issues


Stephen Douglas

Had 7 debates throughout Illinois with Lincoln. Became known as having a "don't care" attitude about slavery that Lincoln tried to show the public through. He was a democrat who designed the Kansas-Nebraska act


Kansas-Nebraska Act

was designed by Stephen Douglas and it divided Indian territory into Kansas and Nebraska, repealed the Missouri Compromise, and left the new territories to decide the issue of slavery on the basis of popular sovereignty.


Know nothings

It promised to purify American politics by limiting or ending the influence of Irish Catholics and other immigrants, thus reflecting nativism and anti-Catholic sentiment.


Republican Party

Antislavery party formed in 1854 following passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act. The Republican attempted to unite all those who opposed the extension of slavery into any territory of the United States


James Buchanan

he was a "doughface" meaning that he was a northern man with southern principles..nominated as the democrat in the election of 1856. He won the election with 174 electoral votes


Abraham Lincoln

Had served as a whig in Illinois but hadn't held a public office since 1849. Yet, he still ran for presidency in 1860. He lost in the Illinois Senate to Stephen Douglas..but beat him in the election of 1860 as a republican. He got all the free states except for one.


Lincoln-Douglas debates

series of debates (7) held in Illinois on Slavery and freedom between Stephen Douglas and Abe Lincoln. Douglas won the election of the senate, but Lincoln won the presidential election


Jefferson Davis

he was a supporter of the south during the civil war but was not able to find a strategy to beat the union


George McClellan

Major general for the union. Organized army of Potomac. played an important role in developing a good army


Uslysees S. Grant

Worked closely with Lincoln to defeat the Confederacy in the Civil War. He was also the 18th president and implemented Congressional Reconstruction


Robert E Lee

American soldier known for commanding the Northern Virginia confederacy form 1862 until Virginia's surrender in 1865


William T Sherman

served under grant in the war. Known for his harshness in Scorted earth. (destroy anything that could be of value to the opposition)


Battle of Antietam

This was the bloodiest day of the war. It was between George McClellan and Robert Lee's troops. Fought in Maryland


Emancipation Proclamation

This made all slaves in the confederate controlled territory free. Happened on January 1st, 1863


David Farragut

He was the first rear admiral, vice admiral, and admiral in the United States Navy. He is remembered for his order at the Battle of Mobile Bay, in which he was victorious,


Stonewall Jackson

one of the most gifted tactical commanders in U.S. history. Confederate and got his nickname at the first battle of run


Fall of Atlanta

William Sherman and the Union forces took over Atlanta. This the troops being led down into Sherman's March of the Sea


Sherman's March to the Sea

This was a campaign to end the Southerners will to fight. It was under William Sherman and he gave zero shits when it came to others...he just wanted to destroy everything in his path


13th Amendment

abolished slavery and involuntary servitude, except as punishment for a crime. In Congress, it was passed by the Senate on April 8, 1864, and by the House on January 31, 1865


14th Amendment

prevents citizens from being illegally deprived of life, liberty, or property. addresses the equal protection and rights of former slaves.


15th Amendment

prohibits the federal and state governments from denying a citizen the right to vote based on that citizen's "race, color, or previous condition of servitude." It was ratified on February 3, 1870, as the third and last of the Reconstruction Amendments.


Andrew Johnson

First president after Lincoln's death. He was later impeached because of his violation of the 2nd amendment



These were northerners who moved south during the reconstruction era. sixty carpetbaggers were voted to congress and wanted to modernize the south and help with the reconstruction



This was used as a derogatory term that southerners used toward other southerners who supported carpetbaggers. These people were seen as traitors to the south



Columbus lands in New World



reaching Jamestown



Mayflower departs from England


July 4th 1776

Declaration of Independence signed



Revolutionary War



Constitutional convention



Louisiana Purchase



The War of 1812



Missouri Compromise



Mexican-American War



Civil War


Freedman's Bureau

this distributed food and clothing to slaves who had just become free. This also attempted to give slaves some sort of land



This is what many ex slaves had to resort to. They would plant on other planters farms, but they would have to pay rent through the crops that they grew


Crop Lien System

This was a part of the sharecropping. a merchant would give goods to the farmer in exchange for a contract of how much the farmer would have to give to the merchant...sometimes the farmer wouldn't grow enough to even pay the merchant back and the cycle would begin again


Black Codes

These were things that the south did to make it feel like whites were still superior to blacks. For example, separate bathrooms, schools, busses, etc.


Reconstruction failures

There was corruption in national and state governments, economic depression in the 1870s, continuing racism, and many laws weren't even enforced


Cotton Diplomacy

The south thought that if they continue to supply cotton to France and the UK they would support them in the civil war


Panic of 1873

Post-war inflation, rampant speculative investments (overwhelmingly in railroads), a large trade deficit, ripples from economic dislocation in Europe resulting from the Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871), property losses in the Chicago (1871) and Boston (1872) fires, and other factors put a massive strain on bank reserves, which plummeted in New York City during September and October 1873 from $50 million to $17 million.


Rutherford B. Hayes

was put in the 1876 election as a republican. Won a very close election to Samuel Tilden. They were some doubts to if Hayes actually won the election, but the south agreed that he could be inaugurated if he built railroads and federal subsidies in the south