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Flashcards in A New Testamant chapter 1 Deck (29):
1

Apocrypha

books found in the Septuagint but not in the Hebrew bible. These books were never accepted as canonical by the Jewish community.

2

Apostles

recognized as authorities in the church. The 14 sent by Christ

3

Athanasius

Fourth-century bishop of Alexandria. One of the most powerful opponents of the theological position known as Arianism.

4

Canon

A group of authoritative writings. (the bible)

5

Constantine

Roman emperor. First granted toleration to the church and began to favor it because he thought the God of the church granted him the ability to take control of the empire

6

Council of Trent

Anti-Reformation Council. Rejected many reformation doctrines and included the first official declaration about which books in the bible were canonical

7

Dead Sea Scrolls

The manuscripts found in the caves around the Qumran compounded at the northwestern end of the dead sea. Provide some of the earliest evidence for text of the Hebrew bible

8

Exile

When the nation of Judah suffered defeat at the hands of the Babylonians and the Babylonians forced Judah people to move to Babylon

9

Gnostic Christians

Believed that Jesus could not become a man because men are people of God (who is evil)

10

Hebrew Bible

Old Testament, but in different orders.

11

Huldah

Woman recognized as a prophet who confirmed that the book found in he temple by workers during Josiah's reform was Gods word

12

Jerome

Biblical scholar who translated Bible into latin. His translation (called the Vulgate) becomes standard translation for centuries

13

Josephus

Jewish writer who was a general in the revolt of 66-70. After his capture he becomes the historian for Roman general Vespasian.

14

Judah

The name of the southern kingdom who capital was Jerusalem. When Israelites divided into two nations the other was called Israel

15

Marcion

Asia minor who went to Rome and tried to gain a position of leadership in the church. Argued the bible came from different god than the God seen in Jesus (Jesus could not be a man)

16

Muratorian Canon

canonical writings set down in the late second century

17

New Testament

The collection of 27 writings that the church added to the Hebrew Scriptures to complete their canon. Development: 1.) Crises of Destruction of Jerusalem. 2.) Perceived need for tighter boundaries. 3.) Proliferation of Sectaricism and New scripture. 4.) Marcon's Canon and the proto-orthodox Response.

18

Old Testament

Hebrew Bible

19

Pentateuch

First five books of the bible (The torah)

20

Second Temple Judaism

The various forms of religious expression practiced by jews in their worships of the God of Abraham. Started at the return of the Babylon exile and ended with destruction of the temple by the Romans

21

Septuagint

The Greed translation of the Hebrew Scriptures (Old Testament)

22

Torah

The first five books of the bible

23

Vulgate

The Latin translation of the whole bible completed by Jerome.

24

New Testament formation in Early Christian Writings

1.) Pauls letters
2.) Collection of four gospels

25

Accepted books among the proto-orthodox

1.) Four Gospels
2.) Acts
3.) Paul

26

Pro-Orthodox

Jesus was a man, and also god. God is 3 in one.

27

Development of OT Canon

1.)Destruction of Jerusalem
2.) Need for tighter boundries
3.) Proliferation of Sectarianism and New Scripture
4.) Septuagint--translation into greek (the bible)
5.) Tanakh--abbreviation of the laws

28

Development of the NT Canon

1.) destruction of jerusalm
2.) Perceived need for tighter boundaries
3.) Need for new scripture
4.) Marcion's Canon and pro-orthodox Response

29

Jerome vs Martin Luther

Jerome kept all 27 books of the New Testament when he translated it to Latin. Martin wanted the Apocrypha out