HIstory Terms chapters 5-8 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in HIstory Terms chapters 5-8 Deck (67):
1

natural increase

Growth of population through reproduction, as opposed to immigration in the 18th century. Accounted for 3/4 of American colonies growth

2

partible inheritance

System of inheritance in which land was divided equally among sons. By the 18th century, this practice in Massachusetts had subdivided and was too small so it forced families to move farms

3

Pennsylvania Dutch

Name given by other colonists to German immigrants to the middle colonies.

4

Scots-Irish

Protestant immigrants from northern Ireland, Scotland, and northern England. Deteriorating economic conditions in their European homelands contributed to increasing migration to the colonies in the eighteenth century

5

redemptioners

German emigrants who agreed to pay back by selling themselves as servants

6

Middle Passage

the crossing of the Atlantic by slave ships traveling from West Africa to Americas..slaves were crowed together in tight spaces

7

New Negros

Term given to newly arrived African slaves in the colonies. Planters usually maintained only a small number of recent arrivals at any given time

8

Stono Rebellion

Slave uprising in Stono, South Carolina where a group of slaves attacked different plantations and killed over 20 whites

9

task system

A system of labor in which a slave was assigned a daily task to do as he wished upon his completion. This system offered more freedom than the carefully supervised gang-labor system

10

Enlightenment

An 18th century philosophical movement that emphasized the use of reason to reevaluate previously accepted doctrines and traditions. Enlightenment encouraged examination of the world and independence of mind (Ben Franklin and Thommy Jeff boy)

11

Great Awakening

Wave of revivals that began in Massachusetts and spread through the colonies in the 1730s and 1740s. The movement emphasized vital religious faith and personal choice. It characterized by large, open air meetings at which emotional sermons were given by itinerant preachers. Jonathan Edwards was a key preacher and George Winfield was a British Minister who moved to the colonies and preached all over North America

12

presidios

Spanish forts built to block Russian advance into California

13

Pontiac's rebellion

A coordinated uprising of Native American tribes in 1763 in the Northwest after the end of the end of the Seven Years War. The rebellion heightened Britain's determination to create a boundary between Americans and Indians, embodied in the Proclamation of 1763. The Native Americans attacked and killed many Colonists and British people. This lead to the Paxton boys retaliation

14

Sugar Act (Revenue Act)

In 1764 British law that decreased the duty on French molasses, making it more attractive for Shippers to obey the law, and at the same time raised penalties for smuggling. The Sugar Act regulated trade but was also intended to raise revenue. It had the Americans pissed. (This was under King George the III)

15

Stamp Act

1765 British Law imposing a tax on all paper used for official documents, for the purpose of raising revenue. Widespread resistance to the Stamp Act led to its repeal in 1766

16

virtual representation

The theory that all British subjects were represented in Parliament, whether they had elected representatives in that body or not. American colonists rejected the theory of virtual representation, arguing that only direct representatives had that right to tax the colonists.

17

Declaratory Act

1766 law issued by Parliament to assert Parliaments unassailable right to legislate for its British colonies in all cases whatsoever, putting Americans on notice that the simultaneous repeal of the Stamp Act changed nothing in the imperial powers of Britain.

18

Townshend duties

British law that established new duties on tea, glass, lead, paper, and painters color imported into the colonies. The townshead duties led to boycotts and heightened tensions between Britain and the American colonies. (Samuel Adams took lead in the protest) Eventually, Britain lifted all taxes except for the one on tea. Because of all of this, Britain sent more troops over

19

Boston Massacre

March 1770 incident in Boston in which British soldiers fired on an American crowd, killing five. The Boston Massacre became a rallying point for colonists who increasingly saw the British government as tyrannical and illegitimate

20

committees of correspondence

A communications network established among towns in Massachusetts and also among colonial capital towns in 1772-1773 to provide for rapid dissemination of news about important political developments. These committees politicized ordinary townspeople, sparking a revolutionary language of rights and duties.

21

Tea Act of 1773

British act that lowered the existing tax on tea to entice boycotting Americans to buy it. Resistance to the Tea Act led to the passage of Coercive Acts and imposition of military rule in Massachusetts

22

Coercive (Intolerable) Acts

Four British acts of 1774 meant to punish Massachusetts for the destruction of three shiploads of tea. Known in Amercia as the intolerable acts, they led to open rebellion in the northern colonies

23

First Continental Congress

September 1774 gathering of colonial delegates in Philadelphia to discuss the crisis precipitated by Coercive Acts. The congress produced a declaration of rights and an agreement to impose a limited boycott trade with Britain

24

Second Continental Congress

Legislative body that governed the United States from May 1775 through the war's duration. It established an army, created its own money, and declared independence once all hope for a peaceful reconciliation with Britain was gone

25

Continental army

The army created in June 1775 by the Second Continental Congress to oppose the British. Virginan George Washington, commander in chief, had the task of turning local militias and untrained volunteers into a disciplined army

26

battle of Bunker Hill

Second battle of the war, on June 16, 1775 invoving a massive British attack on New England militia units on a hill facing Boston. The militiamen finally yielded the hill, but not before inflicting heavy casualties on the British.

27

Common Sense

Pamphlet written by Thomas Paine in 1776 that laid out the case for independence in it, Paine rejected monarchy, advocating its replacement with republican government based on the consent of the people. The pamphlet influenced public opinion throughout the colonies

28

Declaration of Independence

A document containing philosophical principles and a list of grievances that declared separation from Britain. Adopted by the Second Continental Congress on July 4, 1776. It ended a period of intense debate with moderates still hoping to reconcile with Britain.

29

battle of Long Island

First major engagement of the new continental army, defending against 45,000 British troops newly arrived on western Long Island. The continentals retreated, with high casualties and many taken prisoners. British got New York

30

Ladies Association

A women's organization in Philadelphia that collected substantial money donations in 1780 to reward Continental soldiers for their service. A women leader authored a declaration "The Sentiments of an American Woman" to justify women's unexpected entry into political life

31

loyalists

Colonists who remained loyal to Britain during the Revolutionary War, probably numbering around one-fifth of the population in 1776. Colonists remained loyal to Britain for many reasons, and loyalists could be found in every region of the country

32

battle of Oriskany

A punishing defeat for Americans in a ravine named Oriskany near Fort Stanwix in New York in August 1777. German American militiamen aided by allied Oneida warriors were ambushed by Mohawk and Seneca Indians, and 500 on the revolutionary side were killed

33

Battle of Saratoga

A multistage battle in New York ending with the decisive defeat and surrender of British general John Burgoyne on October 17, 1777. France was convinced by this victory to throw its official support to the American side in the war

34

Battle of Yorktown

October 1781 battle that sealed American Victory in the Revlountionary war. American troops and a French fleet trapped the British army under command of General Charles Cornwallis at Yorktown, Virginia

35

Treaty (Peace) of Paris, 1783

September 3, treaty that ended the Revolutionary War. The treaty acknowledged America's independence, set its boundries, and promised the quick withdrawal of British troops from American soil. It failed to recognize Indians as players in the conflict

36

Articles of Confederation (1781-1788)

The written document defining the structure of the government from 1781 to 1788 under which the union was a confederation of equal states, with no executive and limited powers, existing mainly to foster a common defensive. It was hard to get Maryland and New Jersey on board because they wanted to make the western states a part of it too. They offered resources and land.

37

republicanism

A social philosophy that embraced representative institutions (as opposed to monarchy) a citizenry attunded to civic values about private interests, and a virtuous community in which individuals work to promote the public good

38

gradual emancipation

A law passed in five northern states that balanced civil rights against property rights by providing a multistage process for freeing slaves, distinguishing persons already alive from those not yet born and providing benchmark dates when freedom would arrive for each group

39

Newburgh Conspiracy

A bogus threatened coup staged Continental army officers and leaders in the congress in 1782-1783 who hoped that a forceful demand for military back pay and pensions would create pressure for stronger taxation powers. General Washington defused the threat

40

Treaty of Fort Stanwix

1784 treaty with the Iroquois Confederacy that established the primacy of the American confederation (and not states) to negotiate with Indians and resulted in large land cessions in the Ohio Country. Tribes not present at Fort Stanwix disavowed the treaty

41

Northwest Ordinance

Land act of 1787 that established a three stage process by which settled territories would become states. It also banned slavery in the Northwest territory. The ordinance guaranteed that western lands with white population would not become colonial dependenciess

42

Shay's Rebellion

(1786-1787) Uprising led by farmers centered in western Massachusetts. Dissidents protested taxation policies of the eastern elites who controlled the states government. Shay's Rebellion caused leaders throughout the country to worry about the confederations ability to handle civil disorder (happened in 1786-87). The Farmers were bad that they were being taxes what they could not pay and were afraid of going to jail. Eventually, the formed and army and tried to take back their rights

43

Virginia Plan

Plan drafted by James Madison, presented at the opening of the Philadelphia constitutional convention. Designed as a powerful three-branch government, with representation in both houses of the congress to be tied to population, this plan eclipsed the voice of small states in national government.

44

New Jersey Plan

Alternative plan drafted by delegates from small states, retaining the confederation's single-house congress with one vote per state. It shared with the Virginia Plan enhanced congressional powers, including the right to tax, regulate trade, and use force to stop popular uprisings.

45

three-fifths compromise

Clause in the Constitution that stipulated that all free personals plus three-fifths of "other personals" would constitute the numerical base for apportioning both representation and taxation. The clause tacitly acknowledged the existence of slavery in the United States.

46

Federalists

Originally the term for the supporters of the ratification of the U.S. Constitution in 1787-1788. In the 1790s, it became the name for one of the two dominant political groups that emerged during that decade. Federalist leaders of the 1790s supported Britain in foreign policy and commercial interests at home. Prominent Federalists included George Washington, Alexander Hamilton, and John Adams

47

Antifederalists

Opponents of the ratification of the Constitution. These people feared that a powerful and distant central government would be out of touch with the needs of citizens. They also complained that the constitution failed to guarantee individual liberties in a bill of rights.

48

Benjamin Franklin

Published Poor Richards Almanac. One of the greatest colonial leaders of the 18th century

49

Jonathan Edwards

Puritan Minister during the 1930s who emphasized human depravity and God's power

50

Boston Port Act

1st intolerable act. closed harbor to all shipping until the Tea was paid for

51

Massachusetts Government Act

2nd intolerable act. augmented the royal governor's powers. the governor could appoint the Massachusetts council, which before was elected. he could appoint and remove all judges, sheriffs, and officers of the court. going forward, town meetings could be held only with the governor's approval.

52

Impartial Administration of Justice Act

implied that British Soldiers would hand out harsher punishments to the colonists. 3rd intolerable act

53

Quartering Act

Gave British soldiers the power to go anywhere they wanted in America, even in private homes. 4th intolerable act

54

Quebec Act

Gave control throughout disputed land in Ohio to Quebec. Not directly related to the coercive acts. 5th intolerable act

55

The Great Compromise

The resolution between the Virginia and New Jersey Plan. The Virginia plan wanted bigger states to have more representatives. The New Jersey plan was for smaller states saying there should be an equal amount of representatives. The compromise was that the senate (the upper house) would all have two representatives while the house of Representatives would be determined by population

56

North West Territory

North of the Ohio and East of the Mississippi

57

William Pitt

Britain's prime minister during the French and Indian War. Turned the war around but at a high cost

58

General Edward Braddock

Led the British to Fort Duqunese during the French and Indian War. He and his army of 2000 were attacked

59

Proclamation of 1763

This was what the British enforced where the colonists could not go west of the Appalachian mountains to stay out of the Indians way (1763)

60

Virginia Resolves

Directed by Patrick Henry. Saying that Britain did not have the right to tax Virginia or the colonies. 7 resolutions were stated but they were basically all the same

61

Thomas Paine

Wrote Common Sense- why America should not have a dictator

62

Declaration of Independence Principle one

All people are created equal

63

Principle two

All people have basic rights that cannot be taken away

64

Principle three

The government gets it power to make decisions and protect the rights of the people

65

Principle four

When the government does not protect the rights of the people, they have the right to remove the government

66

Princeton

American victory in January of 1777 that led the British out of New Jersey for good

67

Battle at Trenton

Washington leading his troops across the Delaware and capturing 900 drunken soldiers of the British